One of the most noticeable developments has taken place in spelling. For instance, words as “Myn”, “knyghtes”, “lyf” and “whyche”, show that the ‘i’ was written as an ‘y’ in Middle English. This is a consequence of the phenomenon known as the Great Vowel Shift. In Old English, the “i” would have been pronounced as ‘ee’. However after
According to Framkin, Rodman, and Hyams (2007), two or more words maybe joined to form new compound words, the kinds of combinations that occur in English are nearly limitless, compounding is a common and frequent process for enlarging the vocabulary of all languages, all languages have rules for conjoining words to form compound, English compounds are variously spelled with dashes, spaces or nothing between the individual words the original strong accents of the syllables in the other members are automatically reduced to a secondary level, the varieties of compounds receive strong accents on the final elements. Methodology The more you read and write, the more compound noun examples you’ll encounter. The following sentences are just a few examples of compound nouns. Compound noun examples have been italicized for easy identification. Compound nouns can be made with two nouns: Let’s just wait at this bus stop.
As a result , the written form of English includes the spelling patterns of many languages ( Old English , Old Norse , Norman French , Classical Latin and Greek, as well as numerous modern language) superimposed upon one another. These overlapping spelling patterns mean that in many cases the same sound can be spelled differently and the same spelling can represent different sounds. However, the spelling patterns usually follow certain conventions. In addition, the Great Vowel shift, a historical linguistic process in which the quality of many vowels in English changed while the spelling remained as t was , greatly diminished the transparency of English spelling in relation to pronunciation. The result is that English spelling patterns vary considerably in the degree to which they follow rules.
The vocabulary found in Central English was passed through three stages: 1 - Old English 2 - French 3 - Latin. The main distinction between early English and late modern is vocabulary because of the production of many new vocabularies because of: 1: The Industrial Revolution and the rise of the technological society 2: The rise of the British Empire. 3-gammer: Old English grammar is an artificial language used by name, conscience, character and action and is similar to modern German grammar. Modern and intermediate English grammar is analytical and very close to each
Let us dwell on the essential features of grammatical structures in Old English. Old English had such a system in which a significant word (noun, verb, adjective) could take a variety of affixes to express grammatical meanings and relationships word with other words in the sentence, that is, it was synthetic. In Old English, as in other old Germanic languages noun grammatical categories characterized by the following: 1. Mortality - Him. Rod., Dat., Vin.
English language standardization is a standard form of written English which has been established in England, that standard is always evolving and as English has spread around the world, several different varieties of English now exist. It’s also stress that the stages of standardization need to be successive and may extend over , and that the process involved in the implementation of a standard English are ongoing as successive generation attempt to suppress the variability which is the inventible result of linguistic change . Samuel Johnson dictionary (1755) is named by the dictionary of Standard English which became a model and standard of English in America and England. The dictionaries before Johnson were just a list of synonyms defining hard word which borrowed from Latin or French. In the 17 century grammar books at this time presented the information which related to the spelling, definitions, origin of words and usage notes.
The poem emphasizes that a lot of the words which we consider to be English have a foreign origin. John Agard gives in this poem numerous examples of words in the English dictionary that actually belong to a non-English culture and vocabulary. He describes the day where these words return to where they came from, leaving English to fend for itself. b. Analyse the poem. You can use the attached guidelines for an analysis of a poem.
9. Effect of bilingualism Many bilingual anything that could be encountered in the United States such as the Gullah ie English language center market, which mixes their native language which is a variation of American English. This language is derived from the language of origin of the immigrants is a interests which are required to use more than one language. Example tribes Spain, France and Germany. And then bilingual spread to all social sectors in
The other factor is the emergence of the United States of America as the leading economic power in the 20th century. This latter factor clarifies the position of the English globally today. The United States of America has nearly about 70 per cent of all English mother tongue speakers in the world. Codification of English in the process of standardization: Codification of English is the process of standardization that develops norms and rules for the language. These norms and rules have to be formulated and set down definitively in grammars, dictionaries, spellers, manuals of styles, texts and so.
Baugh & Cable 2002: 59). The number of second-person pronouns was then limited in the Early Modern English (EMod E) period from 1500 to 1710 so that the word „you“ that is used today both as singular and plural form of the second-person pronoun in addition to its nominative, objective, genitive and possessive forms was used alongside the word „thou“ and its respective forms. Whereas the second-person pronouns with „t“ (t-forms), namely „thou“ ,„thee“, „thine“ and “thy“, were used for singular informal references, the y-forms „you“ ,“ye“, “your“ and “yours“ were used for plural references and also as the polite form of address in singular references. Those applications could also vary depending on the type of writ- ten or spoken text. To explain the semantic distinction of those pronouns in the EMod E period, I am going to subsequently introduce the basic concepts that have to be considered.