Educational Context is for any school subject while Cultural Context is for something not relevant to most school subjects. The cultural context is described in ones attitudes, beliefs, personality, characteristics, ideals and expectations (Gardner, 2007). Therefore, in order to show the product of language learning, the learner will be having different attitudes portrayed in applying the language learning. Easily said, the cultural context gives an impact towards the success of an individual in learning the L2. Educational context is where the education system in which the student is registered and shows performance in classroom situation that could influence on the student’s level of motivation in any school
Therefore, learners’ attitudes could be incorporated in language learning because it may influence their performance in acquiring the target language. Attitudes itself is divided into three factors, namely cognitive, affective, and conative (Baker, 1992). Cognitive concerns with thoughts and beliefs, while affective talks about what people like or dislike towards an attitude object. The last aspect is conative defined as a readiness for action toward language. The way how people have positive or negative attitude may influence on the result in language learning.
As stated by Brown (2007), errors are the “idiosyncrasies in the language of the learner that are direct manifestations of a system within which a learner is operating at the time” (p.258). Error correction is one of the core areas in the field of English language teaching. According to Amara (2015), it is “seen as a form of feedback given to learners on their language use”. Correcting
In the literature on motivation, general consensus on the definition of motivation emphasizes that “motivation is sometimes described as a need which activates behavior, desire or want that serves to energize and direct goal-oriented behavior (Kleinginna and Kleinginna, 1981a).” According to Harmer (2001, p.51), motivation is “some kind of internal drive which pushes someone to do things in order to achieve something.” While Ellis (1994) was stating that motivation has an influence on what a learner learns, how the learner behaves and how much the learner’s achievement is, Wlodwoski (1985, p. 2) explained motivation as “the processes that can (a) arouse and instigate behavior, (b) give direction or purpose to behavior, (c) continue to allow
The Aim on Language Learning Strategies This study exposed language learning strategy use of English learners, looked at the relation between second language proficiency and language learning strategy, and estimated any differences in strategy use by gender. So important is the role of strategy use in learning a second language that some theorists have included it in their models of second language learning (e.g. McLaughlin 1987; MacIntyre 1994) (Goh 1997). 2.3. Classification of Learning Strategies Number of literatures defined language learning strategies as strategies that language learners build in order to cause the development of the language system which affect learning process shortly (e.g., Rubin, 1987; Stern, 1975; Wenden, 1987).
Second, theoretical justification as it is a part of the systematic study of the learner’s language (Corder; 1981). By means of error analysis, teachers will have a general knowledge about students’ errors (Xie and Jiang; 2007). The analysis of second language learners proved to be useful in that it sheds light on some of the areas of difficulties faced by learners, and by providing reliable results upon which materials of remediation can be erected as maintained by Keshavarz (2008). Chiang (1981) in a study noted other pedagogical implications of Error Analysis: (1). Making use of the hierarchy of difficulty.
Language acquisition is a critical affair since each theory functions to prove the other not valid. Behaviourism and nativism are two theories that explain the acquisition of language in human beings. These two theories provide different perspectives in how human beings learn language. This essay will provide a comparison between these theories. The focus is on explaining the theories in regards to second language acquisition.
. listening strategies This chapter reviews the relationship between strategies of listening on EFL learnerns and their willingness to speak to other people. The definitions and classification language learning strategies Listening comprehension Listening comprehension is defined as a complex and active mental process used in an effort to interpret meaning from oral text. Listening is a primary skill for language input. A number of researchers argue that listening plays an essential role in language development and second language acquisition ( Dunkel, 1991; Feyten, 1991; Krashen, 1985; Richards, 2005; Rost, 2002; Vandergrift 1999).
The starting point to construct meaning is conceptual, ideational structures and cultural information which get activated based on conjectures that the listener formulates out of the context in which the listening occurs. Since both processes manifest weaknesses, an effective listener should employ both. The assumption that both are equally needed to reach meaning is premised on the grounds that maximum comprehension can be achieved when incoming data are correlated with the previous ones and when deficient or absent prior knowledge is supported and consolidated with new stimulus. Based on the above, it seems that strategies to successfully perform these processes are necessary for a second language learner. The difference between testing and teaching of listening lies in the explicit teaching of those listening strategies, in the process itself, along with pedagogical practices that favor clearly stated instructions and
We need to check the validity of the content of the items. If we use a questionnaire as a language test, we will have to prove that the content of the interview either ranges over the entire system of the language or adequately samples it. Modern linguistic analysis of the learning problems in a second language permits a highly refined study of the context of a language test. With the use of linguistic analysis and comparison of language we have located and described the significant elements that are most troublesome to a particular group of students. We are thus able to discuss content validity on more solid ground.