English Teaching: Advancements And Roles Of English Language Teaching

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English language teaching (ELT) profession enjoys a long history, which has gradually been shaped by advancements in technology and theories of learning and language. Taught primarily as a foreign language (EFL) in non-English dominant settings as required part of school curricula, English has been going through dramatic transformations for several decades in terms of its speaker profile, areas of use, and functions of its linguistic features. It now has, in statistical terms, more non-native English speakers (NNESs) than its native English speakers (NESs), as noted long ago by some linguists (e.g. Brumfit, 2001; Crystal, 2008). It is also dynamically used all around the world in various domains, ranging from education, tourism, aviation, business to politics. Because of changes in socio-demographic and geographic characteristics of English, English has pluralized and taken up the role of a world lingua franca. 1.1. Research problem and rationale The transformations English has undertaken have made it obvious that traditional teaching methods and materials closely aligning with the EFL philosophy will no longer be sufficient in meeting students’ linguistic needs as language users. It is because most English speakers have already used and will largely be using English within their national contexts (e.g. to study in an English-medium program alongside many international students and academic staff) and within their workplaces (e.g. in the domains of business, tourism,

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