Languages have different sound. Naturally, English language have different speech sounds and organizations of the sounds. “Phonetics is the study of how speech sounds are produced, what their physical properties are, and how they are interpreted. On the other hand, phonology is about the organization of speech sounds in a language” (Cipollone, Keiser, & Vasishth, 1998). In the English language, there are both consonants and vowels.
It terminates in the eardrum which is technically known as the tympanic membrane. The purpose of the external ear is to transmit sounds from the outside world into the more internal parts of the auditory system. While one can simply think of the pinna and ear canal as a simple funnel for collecting sounds, in reality they perform some important functions. The pinna has various ridges and folds that act to reflect and absorb certain frequency components of the sound wave . Because the pinna is not circularly symmetric, sounds which come from different directions will have slightly different spectral characteristics.
As a result , the written form of English includes the spelling patterns of many languages ( Old English , Old Norse , Norman French , Classical Latin and Greek, as well as numerous modern language) superimposed upon one another. These overlapping spelling patterns mean that in many cases the same sound can be spelled differently and the same spelling can represent different sounds. However, the spelling patterns usually follow certain conventions. In addition, the Great Vowel shift, a historical linguistic process in which the quality of many vowels in English changed while the spelling remained as t was , greatly diminished the transparency of English spelling in relation to pronunciation. The result is that English spelling patterns vary considerably in the degree to which they follow rules.
Since the number of syllables is different, the rhythm is different. Typically, small words and affixes are difficult to hear in spoken English, because of the systematic use of contrastive highlighting, which is essential to the English stress and emphasis system. For these reasons, small words are often missing from the student’s speech, indicating that they may not be hearing them well. Moreover, understanding of English rhythm involves more than the ability to identify and count syllables. English rhythm helps to produce and hear the word stress
Prosody provides a handy way to refer to interconnected aspects of rhythm and melody in a single label. There are two aspects of these signals: melody and rhythm. Combination of the two aspects is called prosody. Learning pronunciation is affected by psychological factors in ways that are not so true of studying vocabulary or grammar. This paper looks on how the improper use of prosody in English may distort word sounds in the sentence context so much that those are unrecognizable from the sounds of a word, when it is said in isolation.
a. It’s time we left the room b. Would you rather I did it? The above examples of sentence patterns are to be found among native English speaking people, however, often it is a trouble analyze patterns in order to frame rules of the structure of sentence (Kumar, Chinta Praveen, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publication,
Sentence stress and intonation makes Spanish students of English are not well understood by English listeners. English is a stress-timed language and so Spanish speakers often transfer the syllable stress and intonation patterns of their mother tongue into English. If Spanish speakers stress the wrong syllable, and give unstressed syllables the same length as stressed ones, the identification of the word and ideas expressed will be difficult to understand for the listener. For that reason, the stress patterns are important parts for English
This mixture is often confusing and inappropriate for further analysis, such as speech recognition. Ideally, some method of separating out the effects of the vocal tract and the excitation would be appropriate. Unfortunately, these two speech aspects are convolved together and they cannot be separated by simple filtering. One speech analysis approach that can help in separating the two elements is the Cepstrum . This finds applications both pitch detection and vocal tract.
Phonetics can be divided into articulatory phonetics which studies the way the vocal organs are used to produce speech sounds, there is acoustic phonetics which studies the physical properties of speech sounds, and auditory phonetics which studies the way people perceive speech sounds. In this paper I concentrate mostly on the articulation of speech sounds in the English language, with little mention of their acoustic and auditory characteristics. TYPES OF ENGLISH SOUNDS: There are 44 sound that make up the sounds of our English language. This sound are divide in in to two major parts that is vowels and consonants. VOWELS: A vowel may be defined as a typically voiced sound in the pronunciation of which the breath stream has a free passage through the mouth and/or nose, and for which there is no audible friction.
2.0 Literature review 2.1 Segmental features 2.1.1 Monophthongs, diphthongs and triphthongs There are two types of vowels in English which is short vowels and long vowels. The example symbols of short vowels are ɪ, e, æ, ʌ, ɒ, and ʊ. The difference length of the vowels would be uttered according to the placement of the stress in the word. The central vowel ə is one of the most widely used vowel sounds in the English language and it is expressed the vowel schwa sound in the word. For example, words such as about and perhaps.