The tube was placed back in incubation for 96 more hours to observe any more positives. 2.10 Catalase Test A trypticase soy agar plate was used and after incubation, four drops of 3% Hydrogen Peroxide was added to the plate to flow over the bacterial growth. A presence of bubbling was observed. 2.11 Starch Hydrolysis A starch agar plate was inoculated with a streak of the unknown bacteria and then incubated. On the second day of incubation, the plate was removed from the incubator and placed over a hot plate heating Iodine solids.
The swab was inoculated onto blood agar, MacConkey’s agar and nutrient agar, mannitol salt agar and Sabouraud's dextrose agar and was incubated at 370C for 24 hrs for bacterial culture and at room temperature for fungal isolates. Next day the colonies were picked up and preliminary identification was done and the bacterial isolates were identified based on standard protocols. LPCB was done for the identification of fungal isolates after 48 to 72 hrs. ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTABILITY TEST Antibiotic sensitivity test of the bacterial isolates was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method2. The following were the antibiotics used for the study-amikacin (AK 30), nalidic acid (NA 30), erythromycin (E 15), vancomycin (VA 30), tetracycline (TE 30), cefoxitin (CX 30), rifampicin (RIF 5) ciproflaxicine (Cip 5), ceftazidime (CAZ 30), cefotaxime (CTX 30), cepifime (Cpm 30), cefoperazone (CPZ 75).
Incani A, Hair C, Purnell P, O’Brien DP, Cheng AC, Appelbe A, Athan E (2013). Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: evaluation of the role of transoesophageal echocardiography in identifying clinically unsuspected endocarditis. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases.32 (8):1003-1008. PMID: 23417650. 6.
Positive results should be red-purple residue. The principles involved in this test were oxidation of purine by concentrated HNO3; condensation reaction of alloxan to form alloxanthin; and neutralization which forms the red purple murexide or the potassium salt of purpurate. In the sample, the red-purple residue did not appear which means that there is the absence of purines in the DNA
Abstract: The Yeast alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme (EC 184.108.40.206) belongs to zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenases family. The aim of this experiment was to determine the subcellular localisation of YAD in S. cerevisiae. The yeast cell was ruptured by homogenisation and fractionated by a process called centrifugation. Protein assay was carried out to calculate the concentration of protein prior to dilutions. ADH assay was carried out to oxidise the ethanol to acetaldehyde and two marker enzymes G6PDH and ALP assays were carried out to aid in the determination of the localisation on YAD.
The attachment of E.coli on the surfaces of epithelial cells pertaining to urinary tract is achieved throughout several bacterial adhesive proteins. In parallel with biofilm formation of pathogenic E.coli on animate and inanimate surfaces, the secretion of exopolysaccharide occurs. The most important VFs which are found in UPEC strains are recognized as capsule, fimbriae, pili, flagella, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), hemolysins, siderophores and toxins. These factors mediate colonization and invasion of the UPEC in diverse positions (9, 12,
P. agarwal and co-workers work for protein chemical modification by conducting a pictet-spengler reaction between aldehydes and alkoxyamines. This forms an oxyiminium ion as an intermediate that eventually undergoes intramolecular C-C bond with indole nucleophile to form an oxacarboline product. As compared to the oxime and hydrazone conjugates, the oxacarbolines are very much stable towards the hydrolysis under physiological relevant conditions as depicted by their experiment. In order to use this strategy for site specific chemical modification of formylglycine and glyoxalglycine-functionalized, they use an aldehyde-tagged variant of the Herceptin( a therapeutic monoclonal antibody). All the experiments performed by them showed that the Pictet-spengler reaction has a bright future in the research for the
For the Oxidase test, first I took a substantial amount of bacterial goober using the loop from the given petri dish (this does not need to be from an isolated colony). I then placed this goober on the piece of filter paper and added a few drops of oxidase reagent to it. I observed for few seconds to see if there was any color change and wrote down my observation. After that, I obtained a F agar petri dish and streaked it with the unknown bacteria using a sterile loop. The petri dish was incubated for 24Hrs at 35oC.
The chemical adds bases to the primer sections to develop correlative strands of DNA exactly the same as the first original molecule. These last three stages can be rehashed around 30 times to give approximately 1 billion duplicates of the first original DNA. The entire procedure takes around 3 hours and quite a bit of that is the time taken to warm and cool the reaction blend in the PCR machine. PCR has so many advantages. It is a simple and straightforward system to comprehend and utilize, and it gives very fast results.
This was incubated at 37oC until turbidity marched that of 0.1% BaSO4 solution then a swab stick was used to inoculate onto the surface of freshly prepared nutrient agar plates. A multiple antibiotics disc was placed on the already seeded agar plate (The disc contained the following antibiotics; ciprofloxacin (10µg), streptomycin (30 µg) septrin (30 µg), ampliclox(30 µg), zinnacef(20 µg), amoxicillin(30 µg), tarivid(10 µg), gentamycin(10 µg),rocephin(25 µg), augumentin(30 µg), erythromycin(10 µg), perfloxacin(10 µg) and sarfloxacin(10 µg) . Then, plates were incubated at 37oC for 24h, at the end zones of inhibition were measured. Zones less than 14mm were taken as