(HUS) happens once microorganisms enter the system and release a poisonous substance that destroys red blood cells. Patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome often have dysentery. The syndrome is deadly (Galanakis et al., 2002; Butler, 2012).
Enterococcus is the massive group of carboxylic acid microorganism of the phylum Firmicutes. Enterococci are Gram +ve cocci that generally occur in pairs (diplococci) or short chains. Enterococci are facultative anaerobic organisms, i.e., they're capable of internal respiration in each oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor environment. Although they're not able of forming spores, enterococci are tolerant of a large vary of environmental conditions: hot temperature (10–45 °C), pH (4.5–10.0), and high …show more content…
Proteus bacilli are widely distributed in nature as saprophytes, being found in moldering animal matter, sewage, manure soil, the mammalian intestine, and human and animal body waste. They are opportunistic pathogens, commonly responsible for urinary and septic infections. The urinary tract infections involving struvite stones are characteristic. By producing urease, Proteus spp. can hydrolyze urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide, and therefore raise urinary pH. Alkalinization of urine promotes precipitation of magnesium-ammonium phosphate salts leading to the formation of struvite stones, which may serve as a nidus for the persistence of infection or may directly obstruct the urinary tract, there by promoting infection. Proteus is often the cause of bacterial invasion of the bloodstream often associated with diabetes, heart and lung disease, or cancer. Proteus is regarded to be an undesired element of intestinal microflora, as the bacteria may also become a causative agent of diarrhea. Approximately 95% of UTIs occur when bacteria ascend through the urethra and the bladder. Infection includes Urethritis, cystitis, prostatitis, or pyelonephritis. Chronic, recurring stones may be an indication of chronic infection. Symptoms of urethritis are usually mild and may be dismissed by the patient. Women present with dysuria, pyuria, and increased frequency of urination. Presenting symptoms in males are usually mild and may include urethral discharge. Symptoms of cystitis tend to be more prominent compared to those of urethritis. In both men and women, symptoms are of sudden onset. They include dysuria, increased frequency, urgency, suprapubic pain, back pain, small volumes, concentrated appearance, and hematuria. If the patient is febrile, this could be a sign of bacteremia and impending sepsis. These symptoms may not be present if the patient has an indwelling catheter. Prostatitis is obviously limited to men and occurs
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Methods Unknown microbial #398 went through several of tests in order to identify its characteristics when isolated from a urine sample of Doris, a 64- year old patient with a kidney infection. To identify unknown #398, must prepare a working and a reserve stock by the inoculation from a broth culture and by quadrant streaking method on a PEM and EMP plates. The following test procedures were incubated at 37°C for 48 hours for observation and identification for unknown #398. The identification of unknown #398 followed test procedures from Brown1.
However, some doctors consider infections of the urethra and prostate to be lower (Iman, 2016). Upper UTIs usually consist of diseases of the ureters, renal pelvis, and interstitium. The differences are that upper infections can lead to kidney failure, and lower UTIs result in necrosis. E. Coli and Staphylococcus cause the lower infections, whereas the upper infections are usually due to Proteus, E. Coli, and Pseudomonas. Lower UTIs have symptoms frequency, urgency, dysuria, back pain, hematuria, cloudy urine, and flank pain, whereas upper infections have signs of frequency, urgency, dysuria, costovertebral tenderness, and hypertension (Huether, 2012,
The purpose of this lab report is to employ a myriad of skills, tools and, methods learned throughout this semester to perform the appropriate tests for the identification of the assigned unknown bacteria. Add more background information here!!! The most important tools and techniques used during this identification include aseptic technique, microscopic examination and, the use of selective and differential media. Aseptic technique is an important tool for microbiologists. It is imperative that aseptic technique is maintained throughout the length of any test to avoid any cross-contamination that may lead to inaccurate results.
Mannitol Salt Agar: No growth occurred on this plate. Justification: Proteus vulgaris produces Hydrogen sulfide. The unknown organism produced Hydrogen sulfide in both the SIM Agar and TSI Agar. Proteus vulgaris is a motile microorganism that produces Indole.
Review of Symptoms General: denies fever, night sweats, significant weight gain or loss, exercise intolerance, depression, sleep disturbances, or fatigue HEENT: denies dry eyes, irritation, vision changes, difficulty hearing, ear pain, sore throat, runny nose, or sinus pressure Neck: denies swollen glands or stiff neck Pulmonary: denies cough, wheezing, or shortness of breath Cardiovascular: denies chest pain or palpitations Gastrointestinal: denies abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, acid reflux, or melena Genitourinary: reports dysuria and vaginal itching, denies incontinence, hematuria, increased frequency, abnormal bleeding, or vaginal odor Musculoskeletal: denies muscle aches, weakness, joint pain, back pain, or edema Integumentary: denies any rashes, lesions, or change in hair Neurological: denies numbness, headache, seizures, tingling or sensation changes Endocrine: denies bruising, excessive sweating, thirst, hunger, heat or cold intolerance Objective Data Physical Exam Vitals: blood pressure - 130/77, heart rate - 97, respiratory rate - 17, temperature – 97.9 , oxygen saturation –97% on room air, weight – 183 pounds, height – 5 feet 4 inches, body mass index –
Even with being observant and watching for the obvious signs and symptoms of a UTI, it is important we also are aware that UTIs can be symptomatic or asymptomatic (Hälleberg Nyman, Johansson, Persson & Gustafsson, 2011). Signs and symptoms of a UTI can include frequent pain and/or burning during urination, polyuria, increased urgency, nocturia, hematuria, incontinence, and suprapubic, back, or pelvic pain (Paul, Day & Williams, 2016). UTIs need to be treated promptly to prevent renal damage, and/or potential septic shock. We also need to be aware of the different risk factors that
After a great deal of research, it was revealed that in individuals that were infected with Helicobacter Pylori, antibodies were found in the bloodstream. Helicobacter Pylori are able to attach to cells as they go through the mucous layer of the stomach. When the bacterium enters the stomach, an enzyme called urease converts the stomach cells chemical urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. The enzyme urease tends to trigger inflammation.
Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen, meaning that they can cause infection more frequently and more easily in persons’ with a weakened immune system such as, HIV patients (CDC, 2015). This organism is seen primarily in nosocomial infections, also known as, hospital-acquired infections (Bukhari, 2004). This means that the organisms favors the hospital environment and is easily passed to a person while they are in the hospital. Ways that a person can get a Staphylococcus epidermidis infection is through IV’s, more commonly in drug users, catheters, and artificial equipment (Bukhari, 2004). Skin-to-skin contact can also be a form of getting this type of infection.
Enterobacteriaceae - Enterobacteriacaea is a family of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are usually motile and consist of saprophytes and parasites of worldwide distribution. They can be found in soil, water, plants and animals. Q2I: Mutation - Mutation is an inheritable change in the base sequence of the genome of an organism. Question Set 3: Q3A: The authors hypothesized that colistin resistance was spreading by horizontal gene transfer as opposed to mutation.
Staphylococcal enterotoxins are thermostable and maintain heating to such a temperature at which staphylococci themselves are killed. The incidence is quite high. In fact, it is higher in the summer than at other times of the year. The reason most often is related to meat dishes and cakes with custard, perhaps because staphylococci, being resistant to high concentrations of protein, salt and sugar, thrive in these products without being competitive. Outbreaks are usually associated with the consumption of food with long shelf life at room temperature.
S. aureus is a non-motile facultative anaerobic bacteria. This bacteria can survive long periods in the environment; so it is readily transmissible. S. aureus causes a number of medical infections and is the leading cause of wound infections. It is an opportunistic bacteria, and infects any population. It favors the skin, since it is part of the normal flora.
Bacteria that causes disease are called pathogens. The disease is caused by a poison called exotoxin and endotoxin produced by the bacteria. Another microbial life are protist. They are unicellular eukaryotes. Types of protist includes protozoans and slime molds.