Procedure: With all materials needed, proceed to use the aluminum block to determine the mass and then record in a table. Then fill the graduated cylinder halfway with water and record the volume of the water precisely. Tip the cylinder gradually being cations as not to spill and slide the aluminum block into the graduated cylinder. Put the cylinder straight up and confirm the block is absolutely submerged. Afterwards record the volume.
The overall goal of this lab was to produce an unknown oxalate compound, find its percent composition, calculate its molecular formula, and determine the limiting reactant in its formation. A reaction between iron III chloride hexahydrate and potassium oxalate monohydrate produced 3.307g of potassium trioxalatoferrate (III) trihydrate with a 62.0 percent yield. A permanganate titration determined the average percent composition of oxalate was 53.3% with a 2.22% standard deviation. The percent composition revealed the compound’s empirical formula to be FeK3(C2O4)3•3H2O. Potassium oxalate proved to be the limiting reactant.
The molar mass of a volatile liquid can be obtained by measuring the temperature, pressure, mass, and volume in a gaseous state. The equation used to determine the molar mass is derived from the Ideal Gas Law equation. The objective of this experiment aims to determine the molecular mass of a
• Replace thermometer with a temperature probe for more accurate temperature readings. • Use aluminum foil to insulate the fractionating column. Observation • The process of warming the liquid was slow and tedious. The warming took an average of 30 minutes. • When there was about 2-5 mL of mixture left in the flask, the vapour was no longer able to make it to the condenser and it would fall back into the flask.
Place the beaker containing the wet sand on a hot plate set to “medium.” Heat until the sand appears dry and free flowing, about 5 minutes. Remove the beaker from the hot plate using the beaker tongs and let it sit until cool enough to touch. 12. Determine the mass of the beaker plus sand to the nearest 0.01 g, Record. Analysis Table 1: Quantative Data of Mass Mass of 250-mL beaker 98.35 g Mass of 250-mL beaker + sample 131.77 g Mass of 100-mL beaker 50.34 g Mass of 100-mL beaker + iron filings 52.87 g Mass of 250-mL beaker + dried sand 129.26 Filter paper 2.12 Filter paper with sand 8.19 Table 2: Qualitative Observations of Substances Salt Very tiny pieces of crystal, white Salt-water solution Foggy Iron filings Magnetic, metallic Separated sand Somewhat sticky/clumpy Calculations: First find the mass of a 250 mL beaker only, then get the beaker with the sample and find that mass, then minus the mass of the empty beaker from the beaker with the sample in it, and there’s your answer.
Chapter-V THEORITICAL ANALYSIS The performance of the PEM fuel cell is evaluated by a thermodynamic analysis, which is of two types, viz., energy analysis and exergy analysis. The energy analysis is made by applying the first law of thermodynamics to the fuel cell. The efficiency is defined by considering the heat input to the fuel cell and the work output from the fuel cell. In the exergy analysis the fuel cell and the surrounding environment are considered together. The efficiency is defined based on the maximum or available energy which is calculated by considering the entropy lost to the environment.
 investigated different parameters for the optimization of biodiesel production and carried out the performance test of a diesel engine with neat diesel fuel and biodiesel mixtures. The experimental result shows that exhaust emissions including CO, particulate matter and other emission were reduced for all biodiesel mixtures. And slightly increase in NOx. Hoekman et al.  has studied biodiesel NOx effect and theories explain this effect.
The more volatile component is collected at the top of column and less volatile component is collected at the bottom of column. This technique is use in purification of alcohol and gasoline fraction in petroleum refining industries. This is simple to use but comparatively expensive than any other type of
Diesel engines produce smoke, particulate matter, oxides of nitrogen (NOX), oxides of carbon (CO & CO2) and unburnt Hydrocarbon (HC). Several alternative fuels have been studied to either substitute diesel fuel partially or completely. Alternative fuels derived from biological sources provide a means for sustainable development, energy conservation, energy efficiency and environmental protection.