2. Reasons and Problems related to Wastewater Quality of water is a serious issue across the world and uncontrolled disposal of municipal, industrial and agricultural liquid, solid, and gaseous wastes poses serious threats to the sustainability. This has led to the contamination of air, water and soil along with its contribution to global warming. There are several factors which are responsible for continuous degradation of water quality like increasing population, industrialization and urbanization. As the demand of potable water is increasing, the need of treatment and safe disposal of wastewater is becoming essential to safeguard public health and reduce unbearable levels of environmental deterioration.
Water pollution is one of the main problems of today’s society. Inorganic and organic contaminants release from various industries represents a serious threat to environment due to their accumulation throughout the food chain. Human as final consumer is more sensitive to such pollutants, since biomagnifications of contaminants occurs at each successive trophic level. Conventionally used methods became expensive and require aggressive conditions that may lead to generate secondary pollutants. Therefore, worldwide there is a continuous interest in development of new, effective and inexpensive techniques for the removal of pollutants.
Water pollution is the serious ecological threat that should to be overcome as well as to reduce the pollution. The toxic substances dissolved in the water bodies like oceans and rivers caused the water become more polluted and will degrade the water quality as well. In other hand, the contaminated water also will hazardous to the human health as the water is use in daily routine activities such as washing and drinking. It is not only effect to the human life, but the water pollution also will effect to the other living thing especially the aquatic ecosystems. Water pollution can be caused in a numbers of ways, one of the biggest contributing to the water pollution is industrial wastewater.
There is severe water shortage in the area which is exacerbated by new development applications. Umngeni water, KwaDukuza and iLembe cannot meet the current water requirements of existing users. The fast pace of development in KwaDukuza also places unprecedented pressure on the
As population increases and development calls for increased allocations of water for the domestic and other sectors, the pressure on water resources intensifies, leading to conflicts among users. Excessive pressure on the environment and stress on water resources has brought about a rising demand and growing pollution worldwide which is of serious concern (UN-Water Thematic Initiatives, 2006). A report by UN-Water Thematic Initiatives (2006), reveals that water use has been growing at more than twice the rate of population increase in the last century. According to Postel (2000), the growing water scarcity is as a result of rapid population increase. Worldwide, climate change has also been found to be a major cause of water scarcity (Gober et al 2010; Howard et al
Assessment of seasonal & long term water availability is not only important for sustaining human life, biodiversity and environment, Droughts and Floods. Climate change has led to more frequent and severe droughts and floods. Droughts results in crop losses and livestock death which reduce the food available in an area. Floods cause an extensive damage in a short period of time and decrease and reduce the amount of farmland available to
Also the important perspective which a water control board should focus on is the equal and useful distribution of water. Technologies have been developed to reduce the water extraction from earth . A large quantity of water remains unused. The demand for water, both in rural and urban areas are increasing rapidly . In order to make an effective utilization of water, there is a need to find a technique which is efficient and cost- effective as well.
The effects of stormwater are very crucial to the development of an urban. In the natural environment, water drains in the soil, precipitates in plants and some flows naturally to rivers, ponds and lakes. Urban areas are filled with impervious pavements and structures that decreases the infiltration and precipitation rate compared to natural areas thus surface run-off is higher. This may result into many negative factors including washing away of pavements, soil erosion and waste generation thus land pollution. To reduce this, one must take sustainability into account by using Water Sensitive Urban Design to harvest stormwater and use it for important
The polluted drinking water supplies and unsystematic waste disposal systems that come under intensified pressure in such circumstances and the risk of spread of foodborne pathogens is thereby exacerbated, particularly in developing countries. These vary from climatic changes, changes in bacterial and other ecological systems, to decreasing fresh water supplies. However, an even greater challenge to food safety will come from changes resulting directly in degradation of sanitation and the immediate human environment.
Recharge by runoff from irrigation water into groundwater as well as leaching of agrochemicals cause serious groundwater contamination problems. The clearing of natural vegetation and ploughing up of virgin land for new cultivation also affect the groundwater quality. Irrigation is one of the major sources of salinity in the soil through which rainwater flows to the water table. The dissolution of these salts finally