Environmental Diversity In Pakistan

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INTRODUCTION
Islamabad city is located against the backdrop of Margallah Hills at the northern edge of Potowar plateau situated at 33˚ 49’ latitudes and 72˚longitudes, at an altitude of 457 to 610 meters in the semi-arid zone with moderate summers and winters.
About 1.75 million species have been identified on earth, though estimates range from 3 to 100 million (CBD 1992). While considering the Global Biodiversity Index (UNEP-WCMC 2002), our country Pakistan is located in such a position, where there is medium level of species richness. The species diversity of Pakistan includes: about, 5,500 to 6,000 species of vascular plants (Nasir & Ali 1979) and around 3,000 indigenous crop varieties. The faunal diversity includes; 174 mammals (BAP 2000),
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Threats to species and ecosystem have never been so great as they are today. Human population places greater demands on ecosystems, as a result species extinction continues at an alarming rate (WWF 1998).Ecosystems are being fragmented or eliminated. Population of innumerable species is declining and many are already extinct. These extinctions are irreversible (BirdLife 2004) and pose a threat to our own well-being. The loss of biodiversity often reduces the productivity of ecosystems and weakens their ability to deal with natural disasters such as floods, droughts, and hurricanes, and with human- caused stresses, such as pollution and climate change. Today the ecological threat is greatest with continuing loss, fragmentation and degradation of habitats. The biodiversity is fast heading towards complete annihilation (IUCN 2000). Loss of habitats is the principal cause of the present high rate of global extinction and poses a severe threat to all ecosystems (UNEP-WCMC 1998). Keeping in view its tremendous value, efforts are being made to conserve biodiversity around the…show more content…
It was established on 27th April 1980 by the Federal Government, vide order No. S.R.O 443 [1] /80. (ICT), in order to preserve the natural landscape of the surroundings of the capital city and biodiversity of the area. The total area of the National Park is 158,83 hectres (Management Plan 1992).The park area represents a scrub forest ecosystem which is considered to be of great ecological importance due to its species diversity. The proximity of the park to the capital city is its uniqueness. Due to the variety of its land- use types, the Margallah Hills National Park is considered as a remarkable blend of cultural, biological, physiographic and recreational avenues.It is located in the Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) and forms the northern boundary of Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan. The area of park lies between geographical coordinates: 33 °36’ to 36 °33’ N latitude and 72 ° 50’ to 73 °26’ E
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