It becomes a huge threat to marine environment and ecosystems. Every year, 5 to 30 million tons of oil are spilt in the ocean, with a large amount resulting from common operations of maritime transport and ballast cleaning (Guanhua Hu & Xia Xiao 2013). Due to the
Every year, industrial accidents causes a number of deaths, injuries and property loss due to petroleum refining operations. Industrial accidents have become a threat to human safety such as the accidents at the Skikda refinery in January 2004 and October 2005 and the accident at the Arzew refinery in 2007 (Chang and Lin, 2006). Besides that, petroleum refining unavoidably generates considerable volumes of oily sludge during oil production and processing activities (Dibble and Bartha, 1979), oil pollution accidents have nowadays become a common phenomenon and have caused ecological
BP is on the hook for the cost of the cleanup and already faces dozens of lawsuits from commercial fishermen, tour boat operators and beachfront property owners. The company has also set up a claims center at 1-800-440-0858.It’s not clear how much the company will have to pay out for those damage claims. The Oil Pollution Act, passed after the Valdez spill in 1990, created a federal trust fund with taxes paid by oil companies. That law caps BP’s liability at $75 million, but a bill introduced in the Senate Monday would raise that to $10 billion. The impact is potentially catastrophic; the Gulf coast is still recovering from Hurricane Katrina, and marine wildlife is already struggling with various man-made stresses.
Petroleum refinery effluents (PRE) are wastes originating from industries engaged in refining crude oil and manufacturing lubricants, fuels and petrochemical intermediates. The effluents are composed of oil and grease along with many other toxic organic compounds and are a major source of aquatic environmental pollution. PRE can vary greatly depending on the plant configuration, the type of oil being processed, and operation procedures (Saien J. and Nejati H., 2007). The exact composition cannot be generalised as it depends on the refinery and which units are in operation at any specific time. PRE is often characterized by high concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons, which usually have detrimental and harmful effects on plant and aquatic life as well as surface and ground water sources.
. The incident also affect 1100 miles of coastline in Alaska. And within six hours of the spill, 10.6 billions of gallons of crude oil have been spilled into the ocean. The specific damage of these pollutants to animals in the ocean is mentioned in the article “Who is responsible for marine debris? The international politics of cleaning our oceans”.
The worldwide consumption of petroleum hydrocarbons yearly was evaluated around 1012 US gallons (Prince, 1993). A greater percentage of this oil is transported via water and unavoidably oil spills from pipelines and tankers. Some amount of these over flown crude oil or cleaning of storage tanks gradually form tar balls and pollute the beaches. The smaller tar balls often accumulate to form the bigger ones. Organic and inorganic particles are entrapped within the tar balls due to the action of wind and waves.
Oil from Shell was spilled on the Niger Delta in 2008. According to the company, the spill from faulty weld on a pipeline has resulted in 1, 640 barrels of oil to be split in to the delta near the town of Bodo in Ongoniland. The figure was based on the assessment that was done and agreed at the time by Shell together with the country’s oil regulator and representative from the community. • The environmental risks The spill poses serious threats to fresh water and marine environments. It causes effects on surface resources and a wide range of subsurface organisms that are linked in a complex food chain that includes human food resources.
According to World Resources Institute Energy, it was estimated that 3.6 million tons of oil spilt in to sea annually, mainly as a result of shipping accidents involving oil tankers and deliberate flushing of tanks and engines as well as offshore and onshore oil well blowouts. In my opinion, marine pollution is a crucial issue that should draw concerns. Marine pollution will cause a great negative effect not only towards living creatures but also to the natural ecosystem. Oil spillage has become quite a common phenomenon in Malaysia. Normally, it only occurs when there are shipping accidents especially on the busiest traffic route like Straits of Malacca, accidents tend to happen