Environmental Effects Of Oil Pollution

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Oil pollution has became a global environmental issue in the oceanic ecosystems and inland aquatic ecosystems which threatened greatly. The evaluation and prediction of the effects of oil pollution on water environment have become a very urgent and important issue. It has been estimated that approximately 5 million tons of crude oil enters the marine environment each year from a variety of sources mostly known are the spills from shipwreck, but there are several less conspicuous sources, like intentional flushing of ship compartments, spills from oil rigs, oil from industries, oil refineries, run-off from urban areas (Neff, 1990 and Kennedy & Farrell, 2008).
The fate of oil after spillage at sea spreading and movement when oil enters the sea, it usually spreads over the surface and forms a thin layer or slick. The fate of the slick is dependent on oceanographic and climatic conditions as well as the physical and chemical properties of the components which make up crude oil. The slick may wash ashore or gradually become dispersed in the Open sea. The rates of Spreading of oil slicks over the surface of the sea water are influenced by gravity, surface tension, viscosity, pour point (i.e temperature of solidification) wind, waves and currents (GESAMP 1977 and1993).
The risk of an oil spill is high since an estimated 100 million tons of oil and oil products are transported annually through the region by 20,000 - 35,000 tankers. Furthermore, the risk of vessel

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