As energy is an important input in agriculture which is used to extract groundwater for irrigation (Schoengold & Zilberman 2007; Dumler et al, 2009). Since agriculture production requires energy to pump groundwater, so the rising energy prices may affect the groundwater extraction and crop choice decisions that farmers made. Many studies have investigated the relationship between energy price and water demand. India and Mexico are typical countries for groundwater management. Badiani and Jessoe empirically analyze how the electricity subsidies will affect on groundwater extraction and agricultural production in India (Badiani et al,2013).
Both droughts and floods carry severe consequences as eroding topsoil, flooding rice fields and filling in irrigation canals will constrain food production. It would also cause more money being pumped in to recover from the losses of building infrastructure etc.For example, in 1979, a flood caused India to suffer $2
Various impacts associated with the life cycle of the bulb affect the human health, resources, ecosystem and climate change. As, stated earlier, climate change and effects on ecosystem can be seen over a larger extent of time, while effects on human health and resources can be observed sooner. The potential threats to human health and resource depletion could be as stated below: Carcinogenic effects, ozone layer depletion and photochemical oxidation, and the ecosystem is harmed by terrestrial acidification and eutrophication. Apart from terrestrial ecosystem, aquatic, forest and other ecosystem also face damage. Aquatic ecosystem is affected due to acidification and eutrophication.
Dennis B. Blanton describes how causing more and more freshwater is becoming brackish causing fresh water to become scarce. To be able to get drinking water, the colonists dug wells across the land. However, the wells became vulnerable to drought and salt water intrusion. He also talks about how the transition affects the water. Due to the saltwater transition, and the filth within the water, the water was the reason for many diseases.
Fracking is a process that is now using a huge sum of the water that is available for human and animal consumption. Fracking wells are being built in rural areas where many of these areas have low water availability already. As large amounts of water are needed and fracking is usually done in areas where water is scarce, water needs to be transported and stored. For the storage of this water, large pits called impoundments
From the look of things, I have found that these impacts cause more harm than good. If the water cycle is disturbed, my farming processes will be negatively affected. The first effect is that, the washing away of a fertile top soil would lead to a poor harvest, since all the required nutrients for the crops to grow would be washed away. The loss of fertile soil can lead to an increase in the cost of production due to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The other effect is that, if the water cycle is disturbed, the amount of rainfall per season will be affected which will also affect agricultural production since the processes of the water cycle have been disturbed.
This commonly occurs in areas where native vegetation has been cleared and evaporation rates are high, like the West Australian wheat belt. Irrigation salinity occurs when irrigation water accumulates in the upper layers of soil. When this water evaporates, the salts remain in the soil. Irrigation salinity is common in areas where soil drainage is poor and low quality water is used for irrigation (Rengasamy, 2006). Salinity dramatically impedes plant growth, leading to a decrease in crop yield and quality.
Addition to these, disposal of dead bodies, discharge of industrial and sewage wastes and agricultural runoff, which are major cause of ecological damage and pose serious health hazards (Meitei et al., 2004a). The pollutant from agricultural lands such as fertilizers, pesticides and fungicides and from anthropogenic activities such as mining, disposal of toxic metals, human and animal faeces, industrial, domestic, municipal wastes are continuously discharged into river, such as Vaigai, are the major casues for deterioration of water quality (Karet al,2008 and Amman et al, 2002). In order to maintain the quality of drinking water, an essential component to humans and other living
Fertilizers remove the nutrients of the soil damaging the soil and the local environment and after being mixed with the soil, gradually reduce the fertility of the soil. In the study of (Southland) using fertilizers consists of substances and chemicals like methane, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, the emission of which has contributed to a great extent in the quantity of greenhouse gases present in the environment. These facts are alarming and a serious step needs to be taken as soon as possible to avoid more severe consequences. This in turn is leading to global warming and weather changes. The use of fertilizers for growth and cultivation is keeping our stomach filled for now, but then if things keep on progressing the way they are, it won’t take long to see the times where there is lack of food, water, and health.
SURFACE WATER POLLUTION: FACTORS AND IMPLICATIONS Surface water includes water bodies on the earth 's crust such as well, river, lake, pond, stream, ocean. The water we use for our daily purposes and supplied by the municipalities mostly includes surface water primarily from river catchments. Water for agriculture is taken from rivers; it used to be taken from wells also but now it has shifted to bore wells mostly. Pollution refers to the presence of foreign matter in the resource which degrades the quality of the resource and may cause harm to the consumers. Surface water pollution occurs in many ways.