Environmental Impacts Of Aquaculture

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b. Environmental Impacts
Given that aquaculture is prevalent in coastal ecosystems and freshwater habitats, which are often under pressure from multiple human impacts, it is not surprising that the sector raises environmental concerns. Thus the challenge in natural resource management is to strike a balance between conservation and economic development, taking into consideration different opinions and interests so as to achieve reasonable outcomes (Mazur and Curtis, 2008). Environmental damage is not only a consequence of aquaculture but also represents a momentous constraint, owing to the sector’s primary dependence on good environmental conditions and hence a shared interest in their maintenance (Young, Brugere and Muir, 1999). This is often overlooked. Nevertheless, poor management of aquaculture development and casual practices can impact negatively on the environment and also the sector’s reputation. Potential impacts have been broadly studied in the literature and include: a. discharge of different effluents (e.g. waste feed, faeces, pesticides and medications) (Primavera, 2006); b. effects on biodiversity (Beveridge, Ross and Kelly, 1994); c. negative interactions with wild fish populations (Diamant et al., 2000; Heggberget et al., 1993); d. use of fishery resources as feed inputs (Naylor et al., 2009); and e. animal welfare issues (Ashley, 2007). The type and scale of such environmental effects from aquaculture production depend greatly on the farming method, level

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