Increased urbanization and industrialization has led to large amounts of toxic contaminants being released into the environment all over the world. Though mining of solid minerals has enormous social and economic benefits to the nations, but the long term adverse effects in terms of waste generated and the environmental problems associated with its activities cannot be overlooked. The various steps involved in the mining industry are endangering processes with great impacts on health, socio-economic and the environment. These impacts are felt throughout the whole phases of the mining activities and after mine closure (Akabzaa, 2000). The three principal activities of the mining industry; mining, mineral processing and metallurgical extraction
Accidents are a detrimental factor in many different industries and constitute a potential source of human loss, equipment damage and environmental impact. As the Petroleum refineries are generally acknowledged to be high hazard sites (Wood and Guenes, 2015) it is important to take into consideration that in a number of cases, the resulting fatalities and serious injuries can cost millions of dollars. The risk of accidents is associated with the presence of thousands of tonnes of oil into various product lines each year many of which are flammable, toxic to human health or toxic to the environment and under such conditions that an uncontrolled accident could have significant consequences to the immediate area (Christou, 1999). The consequences of such accidents cover various levels and may affect not only the industrial sites, but also have environmental and socio-economic impacts (Kadri, 2013). Every year, industrial accidents causes a number of deaths, injuries and property loss due to petroleum refining operations.
Though the exchange of gold nuggets and gold dust has boomed the economy and changed trade, there were also very significant trade through buying claims and trading supplies during the Klondike Gold Rush. It has been reported that over 1,139,000 (1000 million in today’s money) dollars worth of gold has been brought back from the Klondike. This mass response has led to hundreds of thousands of prospectors to the Klondike region. However, the average prospector spent around 342 dollars more than the money an average miner had earned, causing a decline in economical profit through the Klondike Gold Rush. Selling claims contributed
Wastes that ends up in the landfill releases a significant amount of methane. Methane is one of the most powerful greenhouse gas emission and it’s worse than carbon dioxide. Food continues to pile up in the landfill creating a remarkable of 3.3 billion tons of greenhouse emission. The methane accelerating impacts climate change and global warming. Climate change can affect the world from wildfires to extreme weathers like hurricanes.
The common sources of heavy metal pollution include discharge from industries such as electroplating, plastics manufacturing, fertilizer producing plants and wastes left after mining and metallurgical processes (Zouboulis et al., 2004). Although some heavy metals are important trace elements, most can be, at high concentrations, toxic to all forms of life, including microbes, humans and animals. Heavy metals generally cause an inhibitory action on microorganisms by
The Gold Rush’s Lasting Legacy on the Environment The California Gold Rush from 1848 to 1855 was a time filled with excitement and prosperity, in which thousands of people came to California to pull gold from the now Sierra Mountains. Gold was one of the most sought-after mineral on this planet, often treasured for its monetary and aesthetic value. Gold has been a rarity due to its difficulty in extracting and refining. Gold is often only extracted through placer mining, hydraulic mining, and lode mining. The promise of a fortune, and the mass migration left a lasting legacy in California’s history.
Companies producing products must get their materials from somewhere. Often if they must mine these materials, it’s done in a poor country where they can get away with unethical working conditions. Unethical working conditions are described as exposing workers to hazardous conditions (the mine could collapse, they breathe in toxic chemicals, etc. ), Many mining chains use child labor and put these children at risk, also chemicals released from mining cobalt get put into the atmosphere and are eventually absorbed into the soil or water around the mining site. It’s important for companies to prove that their product is or isn’t ethical because companies should be transparent about how their products are made.
Heavy metal pollution of soil is usually related to human activities. Sites near mining activities or heavy industry are often highly contaminated with toxic metals. Besides, application of low-quality fertilizers contaminated with heavy metals, e.g. cadmium, increased metal content in top-soils (Lado et al., 2008). Such highly polluted soils are hardly usable for agricultural purposes, because the pollution can be transferred into the food chain.
Some of these food crops are sold in the markets or consumed in the home. There is increased awareness that heavy metals present in soil and food may have negative implications on human health and on the environment (Abraham, 2002; Selinus et al., 2005). From the environmental point of view, all heavy metals are largely immobile in the soil system, so they tend to accumulate and persist in agricultural soils for a long time. The most frequently reported heavy metals with potential hazards in soils are Copper, Cadmium, Chromium, Lead and zinc (Alloway, 1995). The concentration of these toxic elements in soils may increase from various sources
Cable theft can further cause massive damage if not addressed on the governance of organisation. 2.2 Governance and Cable Theft Governance can be defined as collection of actions to ensure development of policies, processes, procedures regarding to cable infrastructure and ensuring continuous monitoring of the implementation and taking a right decision within the acceptable level of accountability . Good governance regarding the cable theft might positively impact country’s economy. Having good governance tightens up and strengthens cable theft. Hence, the lack of good governance might lead to cable theft  2.3 The Consequences of Cable Theft South Africa experienced a high rate of cable theft throughout the years, which had an impact the country’s economy and even worldwide.