Many concerns have centered in on the possible links between repeated concussions and chronic traumatic encephalopathy or CPE. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a serious, degenerative brain disease that affects a person’s ability to think. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy involves the progressive brain damage, particularly in the frontal region of the brain, which controls many functions including people’s judgement, emotion, impulsive control, social behavior and their memory. A signature feature of the disease is abnormal deposits of a protein called tau that accumulates around small blood vessels in brain crevices. Researchers believe that multiple blows to the head may dislodge the tau protein from the cell structure and cause it to form in clumps inside nerve cells.
Parkes also studied how the effect of a traumatic bereavement can influence the persons overall response. An unexpected loss can exhibit a problematic bereavement in some due to the unpreparedness a sudden death can bring. Parkes (2008) found that there were higher levels of distress when a traumatic bereavement had occurred, and were more likely to obtain psychiatric help. Davies (2010) comments on his own experience of bereavement stating it is personal knowledge, compassion, and own experience that creates our judgement that directs end of life care, whether it be for a sudden or expected death. Davies further states that “we have a professional obligation to extend a thoughtful condolence to surviving family members (2010,
(2004), Vigué et al. (2011)]. As the physiologic mechanisms against ischemia in cerebral tissue are impaired, the traumatized brain become highly vulnerable to ischemic injuries, these ischemic injuries, even for a few minutes, have a dramatic negative impact on long-term outcomes. Thus, prediction of outcomes is urgently needed. The primary aim of managing patients with acute brain injury is to minimize secondary injury by maintaining cerebral perfusion and oxygenation.
Second one, the behaviourist approach assumes that the abnormal behaviour depends on the environmental influence. Major aim of the biological approach is that, if there is an existence of any physical abnormality, then there is also a possibility of restoring that abnormality by using some kind
According to an article written by Paul Tough (2016), large amounts of stress experienced in childhood can alter a child’s brain development, resulting in the child having to endure an increase in blood pressure and levels of stress hormones throughout the course of their life. Such alterations in neurological and physiological development could ultimately lead to changes in a child’s behavior since excessive amounts of stress can negatively influence a person’s decision-making behavior (Hollon, Burgeno & Phillips, 2015). Hence, when placed under a great deal of stress, children experience negative changes mentally, physically, and
THE INCREASING NUMBER OF CONCUSSION IN ATHLETES ARE DETRIMENTAL TO THE FUTURE OF SPORTS In the recent years, concussions have become a common accident related to various types of sports around the globe. A concussion is a traumatic injury of the brain, they can also be as a result of a sudden blow on the body. Such a blow may cause the head to jerk back and forth in a rapid motion. This may cause a bounce or twist within the skull, which may over stretch the brain, cause cell damage and alter chemical functioning within the brain. The occurrence of such changes within the brain leads it to vulnerability to injury and increased sensitivity.
When a concussion occurs, the brain is slammed against the inside of the skull and can be bruised. The brain tissue can tear due to different parts moving at different speeds. The ion and chemical ratio becomes unbalanced, causing nerve failure and unconsciousness. Oxygen is limited, slowing recovery. Multiple concussions and swelling can cause progressive cognitive decline which is like dementia (Brain Facts).
Human beings reprioritize their values with an attempt of ensuring a more sustainable relationship with the environment. They do this by reducing their rate of consumption and desire to accumulate material possession. Claxton claims that the human behavior, belief systems and values are responsible for creating an experience that may be understood as presupposition of the system or may not be understood at all (p.75). The goal of attaining maximum material possession hinders mankind’s environmental
First, one needs to know the meaning of hysteria and amnesia in order to understand the multiple personality aspects. In accordance to the Merriam-Webster, hysteria is a state in which a person’s emotions such as fear are so strong that the person behaves in an uncontrolled way. Thus, amnesia is a loss of memory sometimes including the memory of personal identity due to brain injury, shock, fatigue, repression, or illness or sometimes induced by
Prolonged stress produces interaction between local neurotransmitters and hormones leading to structural and functional damage causing suppression of neurogenesis. The main mechanism is, as hippocampus is intensity sensitive to stress and the stress hormone glucocorticoids (GCs) (Bruce et al
Concussions are increasingly being recognized as a public health issue. Traumatic brain injuries, like concussions, have short and long term side effects. The long term effects of concussions are not fully known, however, it has been observed that multiple concussions have cumulative effects. (Kutcher et al., 2013). Understanding the effects of concussions on brain activity is key to developing assessments and preventing future injury.
Common findings are neurodefecits in the central nervous system (CNS) such as chronic neurologic demyelination and inflammation of the CNS, lesions found in the neural space of the person, and an inappropriate immune response (Borazanci et al. 2009). Loss of myelin in the CNS leads to inappropriate action potential activation in which the axons of the neurons become inflamed over time and potentially lead to axon damage and/or loss (Nickerson 2013). Nickerson 2013 also stated that this long term inflammation could be contributing to the long term disabilities associated with MS. Loss of myelin in the axons of neurologic cells lead to many things; one being the formation of astrocytic scarring forming on the myelin sheaths (Newlan et
This can lead to symptoms evolving “over time consistent with anatomical changes in the neural substrates following the injury and comorbid conditions, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance (Department of Defense Deployment Health Clinical Center, n.d.)” (Traumatic Brain Injury in Adults, 2016.) It would be exceptionally frustrating for one to realize they aren’t able to perform the functions they once were able to. This could lead to an individual not finishing their degree, have a lesser feeling of self-worth leading to personal issues perhaps difficulty with developing relationships possibly leading to depression, and feasibly substance
This constant state of poise takes away from productivity, when a person could be focusing instead and accomplishing more. In addition to stress, it has been discovered that, “...incoming information can change how people think and behave.These play to a primitive impulse to respond to immediate opportunities and threats. The stimulation provokes excitement — a dopamine squirt — that researchers say can be addictive. In its absence, people feel bored. The resulting distractions can have deadly consequences, as when cellphone-wielding drivers and train engineers cause wrecks...these urges can inflict nicks and cuts on creativity and deep thought, interrupting work and family life”, (Rechtel).
One characteristic appearing in all three disorders is the concept of worrying. Individuals with GAD are often described to worry indiscriminately about everything, their concerns are often similar to those among society but the degrees to which they worry vary significantly. Comparably, PTSD is a condition that involves significant worrying, often about reliving a traumatic occurrence or experiencing a flashback. Like GAD and PTSD, those with OCD also experience worrying, particularly towards specific thoughts, images or impulses that they effort to suppress. Commonly, individuals with OCD worry about perfection, aggressive or sexual thoughts and