Falco (2014), found the key elements for establishing a curriculum for prevention of substance abuse. The curriculum included developmentally appropriate information about drugs, social resistance skills training, normative education, personal and social skills. Interactive teaching techniques and teacher training was included in the curriculum and adequate coverage and sufficient follow-ups were also provided. 16. Douglas and Flay (2015), found that science guides the prevention of youth problem behaviors.
Primary prevention level prevents future diseases such as providing vaccinations. Secondary prevention is the early detection and treatment such as annual exams and pap smears. Tertiary prevention is preventing the progression and complications of established disease such as providing education for diabetics and asthmatics. Interventions are considered of preventing health risks. As discussed above, primary prevention is to prevent a disease before it occurs.
Stroebe and Schut consider it fundamental to successful coping (Stroebe & Schut, 1999). It is a “process of juxtaposition of confrontation and avoidance of different stressors associated with bereavement” (Stroebe & Schut, 1999, pg. 215). The bereaved will at times be confronted by loss and at other times find relief through distractions and attending to new things. Optimal post-loss adjustment is posited to occur when the bereaved individual smoothly transitions or oscillate between LO and RO processes (Shah & Meeks, 2012; Stroebe & Schut, 1999).
Retrieved April 22, 2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/antisocial-personality-disorder/home/ovc-20198975 Diagnostic Taxonomy/15 Personality Spectra. (n.d.). Retrieved April 22, 2016, from http://www.millonpersonality.com/theory/diagnostic-taxonomy/ McMurran, M., & Howard, R. C. (2008). Personality, personality disorder and risk of violence: An evidence-based approach. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
The aim of this research is to critically explore the effectiveness of service provisions available for young carers of parental mental illness (PMI). The Mental Health Act (2007) s1. defines a mental disorder as “any disorder or disability of the mind”. The research will allow both young carers and social work practitioners to express their critical view of the interventions and support currently available. The young carers engaged in this research will be aged between 15 and 18.
At primary level, the programme will look at preventing the occurrence of substance use. After a needs analysis has been done the prevalence of substance abuse in a school setting would be known, once this is known, an intervention focusing on secondary prevention will be put in place (Duncan, Bowman, Naidoo, Pillay, et al. 2013; MacQueen, et al., 2001). Secondary prevention looks at identifying potential psychopathology in its early stages so that help can be provided before it the problem escalates. Secondary prevention would occur when symptoms of substance use has been picked up.
A Vision for Change (2006), the comprehensive policy framework for Irish mental health services, repeatedly highlights that it is critical to focus collective effort on the areas of health promotion, early detection, and intervention within the youth sector (Department of Health & Children 2006). In November of 1986, the International Conference on Health Promotion produced the Ottawa Charter (p. 426), which defined health promotion ‘‘as the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health.” The World Health Organisation, through their reports on Promoting Mental Health: Concepts, Emerging Evidence, Practice (2004, p. 21-24), clearly outline the principles and concepts relating to mental health promotion. These principles are echoed in A Vision For Change (2006). The policy explicates that the promotion of mental health should occur across all demographics, to enhance protective factors and decrease risk factors for increasing mental health problems. The goal of mental health promotion is the enhancement of an individual’s potential, i.e.
We used PHM (the public health model) as a guide to solve and reduce these issues. The PHM is a broad-based biopsychosocial model emphasizing prevention from primary to tertiary prevention. Primary prevention are applied when an individuals are at risk of involving in misbehaviour activity before the behavior has occured. Secondary prevention refers to programs that attempt to rehabilitate youth who have shown early indications of problem behavior. Tertiary prevention refers to “treatment approaches for the chronic, serious offenders for whom secondary treatment strategies are deemed inappropriate.
(2016, August 9). Prevention of Substance Abuse and Mental Illness. SAMHSA. Retrieved October 1, 2016, from http://www.samhsa.gov/prevention Whiteford, H. A., Ferrari, A. J., Degenhardt, L., Feigin, V., & Vos, T. (2015). The Global Burden of Mental, Neurological and Substance Use Disorders: An Analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.