Environmental Issues In Deforestation

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ISSUES IN DEFORESTATION AND DESERTIFICATION Introduction Deforestation is a conventional environmental challenge substantially affecting the resilience and distribution of forests across different boundaries. It’s simply defined as the loss of tree cover usually as a result of forests being cleared for alternative land uses (Gorte and Sheikh, 2010). In the past, the world has experienced unprecedented loss of its forests especially in tropical areas, though the observation on a global scale shows the rate of deforestation has shown a sign of decrease. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, 2010), in the 2000s about 13 million hectares of forest were converted to other uses, primarily agriculture or lost through natural causes…show more content…
A big issue that many states have is the fact that there are large pockets of land that are going through desertification. The major cause of desertification is overgrazing. Other factors include climate-change, over-drafting of groundwater, deforestation, natural disasters and tillage practices in agriculture that expose soils to wind and urbanization. It affects top soil, surface runoff, groundwater reserves, human, animal and plant populations. Scarcity of water in dry-lands limits wood production, crops, forage and other services that ecosystems provide (Kannan, 2012). This essay sets out to discuss at width the concepts of desertification and deforestation, their causes, effects, solutions which include global responses to the…show more content…
Mahapatra and Kant (2003) state that since the early 1980s, policy makers have responded to tropical deforestation with various bilateral and multilateral initiatives such as Tropical Forestry Action Plan, International Tropical Timber Organization and Forest Principles. They also indicated that there is increasing research on various dimensions of tropical deforestation by many scientists. Though a recognized problem, it is important to highlight that the rate and extent of deforestation has however varied across continental, national, regional and local boundaries (FAO, 2005). For instance, Brazil and Indonesia, which had the highest net loss of forests in the 1990s, have significantly reduced their rate of loss in the 2000s while at the same time Australia experienced exacerbated forest loss due to internal factors such as; severe drought and forest fires (FAO, 2010). It has been observed that tropical deforestation in Africa has been overwhelming in the last two decades. Between 1990 and 2000, the continent lost about 52 million ha of forest, which accounts for 56 % of the global reduction in forest cover (FAO 2003). It is stated for that period, the continent experienced an average forest cover loss of 0.8 per cent which was higher than the world average of 0.2 % (FAO 2005). The causes of deforestation are varied but may broadly be categorized into anthropogenic

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