Screening to determine which projects or developments require a full or partial impact assessment study; b. Scoping to identify which potential impacts are relevant to assess (based on legislative requirements, international conventions, expert knowledge and public involvement), to identify alternative solutions that avoid, mitigate or compensate adverse impacts on biodiversity (including the option of not proceeding with the development, finding alternative designs or sites which avoid the impacts, incorporating safeguards in the design of the project, or providing compensation for adverse impacts), and finally to derive terms of reference for the impact assessment; a. Assessment and evaluation of impacts and development of alternatives, to predict and identify the likely environmental impacts of a proposed project or development including the detailed elaboration of alternatives; b. Reporting the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or EIA report, including an environmental management plan (EMP), and a non-technical summary for the general audience. c. Review of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), based on the terms of reference (scoping) and public (including authority)
The contents should be determined and recorded. The manufacturing process should be researched to detail the resources needed, the emissions created, and the energy expended. The specific number of products produced in a given timespan is essential to determining the full impact of the product’s life cycle. Knowing the number of products being produced along with the specifics of the product’s contents and manufacturing process allows for calculations to be made that will provide good estimates to use when determining the environmental
Strategic Management is a set of decisions and actions that results in the formulation and implementation of plans to achieve the company’s objective. The main elements in Strategic management are as under: Environmental Scanning An organisation exists in an Environment and hence to determine the future direction of the organization its environment has to be scanned. Environmental scanning is the procedure of gathering information about events and their relationships within an organization's internal and external environments. PESTEL Analysis is used as a tool by companies to track the environment they’re operating in or are planning to launch a new project/product/service etc. PESTEL stands for P for Political, E for Economic, S for Social-cultural,
Findings Environmental accounting is a vital component of Social and Environmental Accounting and is believed to be accountants’ specific contribution towards preserving the integrity of the environment. Environmental accounting can be taken as covering all areas of accounting that may be affected by the business response to environmental issues. Environmental accounting involves the establishment of environmental management systems within organisations so that environmental issues can be addressed within the conventional practice. Further, these internal accounting systems need to be transformed into the reporting of environmental information, primarily in the corporate annual reports. This will make the firm accountable for its environmental
In some case “human activities have been and are continuing to alter the environment on local and global scales. Many of these changes are leading to dramatic changes in the biotic structure and piece of ecological communities, either from the mislaying of species or from the introduction of exotic species. Such alterations can preferable change the ways in which ecosystems work. Altered biodiversity has led to widespread cover for a number of both market (e.g., ecotourism, “mining” for medicines) and non-market (e.g., ethical, aesthetic) explanation” (Barbier et al. 1995, Kunin and Lawton 1996, Schwartz et al.
Human development over time has been creating adverse effects on the biophysical environment and as a result they have been coming up with tools to help minimize these effects whilst being still able to develop. Amongst these tools is environmental auditing which is a term that reflects upon a plethora of evaluations against activities that could potentially destruct an environment naturally, socially or economic over standards and regulations that have been set (ICC, 1989). In South Africa, environmental audits were recognised in 1989 by the ESKOM that undertook it and encouraged other companies to think about it. It has thus since been used to check compliance with the environment. There are various types of environmental auditing like acquisition, compliance, waste disposal, water, peer view audit(s) to mention a few.
Environmental law refers to the laws related to all aspects of the environment including, inter alia, vegetation, biodiversity, air quality, water use and waste. The United Nations Environment Programme defines environmental law as “body of law, which is a system of complex and interlocking statutes, common law, treaties, conventions, regulations and policies which seek to protect the natural environment which may be affected, impacted or endangered by human activities.” Each law related to the environment differs from country to country as each country will have unique environmental aspects that need protection as well as specific targets that have been set by their governments to protect the environment. Most sources (Shelton and Kiss (2005)
This conceptual review aims to highlight the concept of the variables and terms used in this study as being discussed in the previous literatures. The review will be able to provide insight and explanation on the related concept used and promote the understanding on the study. 2.1.1 Environmental knowledge The attention towards environmental knowledge is developing consistently with the growing of sustainability awareness. Environmental knowledge is basically the understanding regarding environmental problems and issues as well as possible ways and responsible steps to solve the problems (Kaufmann, Panni, & Orphanidou, 2012; Zsóka, Szerényi, Széchy, & Kocsis, 2013). Environmental knowledge related to ones ability to identify or define environmental
In light of the global nature of environmental degradation and pollution, NGOs have stepped up as transnational actors which address the interdependent affairs of the environment. By solving with global warming, the depletion of natural resources and conservation, different Environmental NGOs have their own functional differentiation and pay attention to a wide variety of issues in purpose to accomplish the goals. In the following, Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies (Ceres), World Wide Fund (WWF) International and International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) have been chosen to compare their effectiveness in regard to their ideologies and activities they performed. Apart from the reason of the long history and well