The hazards of water pollution: Practically all water contaminations are dangerous to people and in addition lesser species; sodium is embroiled in cardiovascular sickness, nitrates in blood issue. Mercury and lead can cause anxious scatters. A few contaminants are cancer-causing agents. DDT is harmful to people and can change chromosomes. PCBs cause liver and nerve harm skin emissions, regurgitating, fever, Diarrhoea, and foetal anomalies.
INTRODUCTION Chromium is a toxic metal are introduced into natural water by means of industrial wastes. They cause severe environmental and public health problems15,16. The major sources are from leather tanning, textile dyeing, electroplating, and metal finishing industries2. Nearly 9,420,000 m3 of wastewater was discharged from tannery industries annually5,6,17.Lot of leather tanneries were located in Vellore, Ambur, Vaniyambadi, Erode areas in Tamilnadu, India. Repetitive use of contaminated water leads to various biological disorder such as mutation, cancer and also causes liver damage.
Contamination of the ecosystems of the coastal area and toxic substances present in aquatic organisms pose risks to human population and the environment, placing itself as one of the global problems of environmental pollution. As a consequence of conflicts in the Western Balkans (1991-1995. ), followed by full and partial destruction of industrial and military targets, in the biotic and abiotic environment matrix a significant amount of various pollutants was emitted. Particularly interesting is a group of semivolatile organic compounds, first of all polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides are ubiquitous contaminants with high hydrophobicity, thermal and
Carbaryl is well known mutagen which is toxic to the kidney, liver, ovaries and testes, and causes behavioral problems in humans and animals. It act by adding a carbaryl moiety to the active site of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme found in the nervous system, red blood cells and blood plasma and act by hydrolyzing
4.1 Environmental Footprint Environment has received a lot of attention in the recent years as concerns are growing over the deteriorating condition of the environment. Many calls have been made to take immediate action to address environmental problems like global warming, overexploitation of natural resources and the increasing environmental pollution. Each energy source has different impacts on the environment including air, water, soil, etc. • Coal Coal mining
5. HEAVY METAL BIOAVAILABILITY AND SEASONAL VARIATION IN WATER AND SEDIMENT 5.1 INTRODUCTION Sediments are known to be “Trace element traps” because they eventually bind almost all the contaminants which enter the aquatic environment. Heavy metals in sediments can lead to greater environmental problems when the contaminated sediments are resuspended and such metals are taken-up by filter feeders. Sediments can reflect the quality of the water system and can be used to detect insoluble contaminants (Karthikeyan et al., 2007) Heavy metals are conventionally defined as elements with metallic properties and an atomic number >20. Heavy metals concentrations in aquatic ecosystems are usually monitored by measuring their concentrations in water, sediments, and biota (Oguzie, 2003).
This wastewater commonly includes Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr (Argun and Dursun, 2008). Whenever toxic heavy metals are exposed to the natural eco-system, accumulation of metal ions in human bodies will occur through either direct intake or food chains. Therefore, heavy metals should be prevented from reaching the natural environment (Meena et al, 2008). In order to remove toxic heavy metals from water systems, conventional methods have been used such as chemical precipitation, coagulation, ion exchange, solvent extraction and filtration, evaporation, membrane methods and activated carbon adsorption (Panayotova and Velikov, 2003). However, most of these processes are expensive, complicated, ineffective at low metal concentrations and inapplicable to a wide range of pollutants (Kurniawan et al, 2006).
Usage and their uncontrolled discharge in to the environment has caused lots of hazards to man, other organisms and the environment itself. Over past many decades there has been increasing global Concern over the public health impacts attributed to environmental pollution, more particularly, the encumbrance of hazardous diseases is increasing day by day. This paper reviews removal technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, ion exchange and membrane
The e-coli bacteria which is present in human waste is very dangerous and drinking this water can cause harmful side effects . Waste dumping – The dumping of wastes like paper waste, food waste, plastic, rubber, metallic and aluminum waste in heavy quantities to the water bodies is another reason of pollution. These waste types take quite time to decompose. For example, paper takes about 6 weeks, aluminum takes about 200 years and glass takes even more years. Underground storage and tube leakages - Many liquid products (petroleum products) are stored or kept in metal and steel tubes underground.
Environmental pollution is the contamination of the physical and biological components of the earth and atmosphere system to such an extent that normalenvironmental processes are adversely affected (Kemp, 1998). Today’s one of the major problem faced by man is Environmental pollution. This problem is present in both developed and developing countries. Due to harsh effects of environmental pollution on human and animal health it becomes a global issue from last few decades. (www.unep.org) Environmental pollution is increasing with every passing year and causing irreversible destruction to the earth.