Environmental Pollution

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I. Introduction Environmental pollution is currently one of the most important issues facing humanity. It was increased exponentially in the past few years and reached alarming levels in terms of its effects on living creatures. The presence of toxic metals in the environment specifically in various water resources is of major concern because of their toxicity, non-biodegradable nature and threat to human, animal and plant life. Electroplating, painting, metallurgical, mining, textile, municipal incineration and chemical manufacturing industries all generate toxic metals of various levels.[1] Strict regulations have been made by different countries for safe discharge standards of these effluents. Chromium ions and other toxic metal ions enter into water and soil from different wastewater sources and thus pollute the water streams and soil. A number of crops and aquatic plants take up these heavy metals and accumulate within them. When humans consume food and water with chromium concentration exceeding the permissible limits then problems like nausea, gastrointestinal disturbance, vomiting, liver or kidney damage etc. is likely to be caused. [3] Researchers worldwide have developed a number of methods such as chemical precipitation, oxidation or reduction, ion exchange, filtration, membrane separations, electrochemical treatment, reverse osmosis, evaporation recovery, coagulation etc., for removing the toxic metals from industrial effluents before discharging into aquatic

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