Paulo Roberto Martins Bonilha (2006) et. al... Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (EC 18.104.22.168) is an enzyme that produces cyclodextrins from starch via an intramolecular transglycosylation reaction. An alkalophilic Bacillus strain, isolated from cassava peels, was identified as Bacillus licheniformis. CGTase production by this strain was better when potato starch was used as carbon source, followed by cassava starch and amylopectin. Glucose and amylose, on the other hand, acted as synthesis repressors.
Some of the food additives are produced from natural food, but mostly they are created by chemists. Each food additive has its own code. This code is different in different parts of the world: in Australia and New Zealand 3 digit number is used; in Europe a letter E is added to the 3 digit code; while in the USA it is just labeled as GRAS (generally recognized as safe). In this table, you can find food additives codes used in Europe: Meanings of indications: 1) Antioxidants are substances that slow down the processes of fermentation and oxidation in foods. 2) Thickeners are substances that make foods firmer.
Biodiesel is a product from the transesterification of alcohol and vegetable oils and animal fats. In our experiment, the cooking oil and different volume of methanol are used in biodiesel production. Different amount of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) which also known as lye was added to improves the transesterification reaction rate. Since NaOH which is homogeneous strong bases is not consumed by the transesterification reaction, thus it is not reactant, but catalyst. When the methanol and sodium hydroxide are mix, sodium methoxide also known as sodium methylate is produced.
The absorbance was taken at 532nm and 600nm and the MDA content was 232 computed by subtracting the absorbance at 600nm for the correction of unspecific 233 turbidity from that of 532nm. The concentration of MDA was expressed as nmol g-1 FW 234 of the sample and estimated using the extinction coefficient (ε) of 155 mM-1 cm-1. 235 2.11.1. Antioxidant enzyme assay 11 236 To determine the activities of SOD (EC 22.214.171.124), CAT (EC 126.96.36.199), POD (EC 237 188.8.131.52), APX (EC 184.108.40.206), GPX (EC 220.127.116.11) and GR (EC 18.104.22.168) fresh leaf tissue 238 was ground in liquid nitrogen and homogenized on ice bath in 3 ml of solution containing 239 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8), 0.1 mM EDTA (Ethylene diamine tetra 240 acetate) and 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). For ascorbate peroxidase assay extraction 241 buffer was supplemented with 1.0 mM ascorbic acid.
They can be used as substitutes for sugars, however are not typically as sweet. Sugar alcohols are incompletely absorbed and metabolized by the body meaning that they contribute fewer calories than sugar. And although they affect blood sugar levels, it is less so than sugars. However, due to incomplete absorption, sugar alcohols can cause flatulence and diarrhea. Foods that contain sugar alcohols can be labeled ‘sugar free’.
This energy meets the needs for growth and maintenance of internal functions. Under anaerobic condition, yeast switches to fermentation which utilizes only about 5% of the energy contained in glucose and ethanol as the end product is produced. Acetic acid bacteria convert glucose to produce gluconic acid and ethanol to produce acetic acid giving it a sour flavor. The acetic acid production in turn induces the yeasts to produce ethanol and making alcohol available to bacteria. Both ethanol and acetic acid possess antimicrobial properties and thereby act against pathogenic bacteria and prevents contamination of the tea fungus (Liu et al., 1996).
ADVANCED GLYCATION END PRODUCTS Advanced glycation end product as an oxidative process that occurred in food perserved or heated the presence of reducing sugars were first observed in early 1900s which non-enzymatically make the food proteins insoluble with yellowish fluorescent products attached to them. This process is known as Maillard reaction named on its discoverer the Louis C. Maillard in 1912 (Finot ., 2005). The Maillard reaction is the one of physiological significance. In vivo, it is also observed that human protein non-enzymatically glycated in the presence of physiologic sugars. One of the best characterized glycation product known to occur in the body is glysocylated hemoglobin.
The reported melting point for acetanilide is 114.3°C, meaning that my range provides support that the product obtained was what was desired. Next, a TLC plate was run to evaluate if the reaction was successful. I spotted three lanes on my plate, diluted pure aniline, diluted pure acetanilide product, and a co-spot of them both for reference. Ethyl acetate was used to dilute the sample to attempt to minimize streaking and I used a developing solvent of 80% ethyl acetate and 20% hexane. There was no starting material present in the product lane, meaning the reaction ran to completion.
Based on the Beer-Lambert Law, the absorbance of light of a sample is directly proportional to the concentration of the molecule which absorbs light. Distilled water is used as a blank solution to set the spectrometer to a zero reading due to none of the absorbing species present in the solution tested. In this experiment, heat is used to speed up the browning of reducing sugar to produce furan. It is due to the chemical reaction of the reducing sugar with the free amino group of an amino acid. The amino group that is present in monosaccharides sugar are a short chain, therefore it is more reactive.
Bacteria do not produce fuels to benefit us humans, but do it naturally since bacteria “eating” wastes and they produce their own wastes. In this case, the bacteria used is called E. Coli. Which is a bacterium that eats the waste and produces hydrogen as it’s waste. The University of Birmingham 's study shows, “ The researchers at the University of Birmingham realized that the initial fermentation phase of the sugar wastes led to the production of formic acid, the same