The objective of this lab was to determine the best pH level to increase enzyme activity. As this objective was met, it was discovered that water (pH level 7) was the best for percent absorbance. The hypothesis for this experiment was, “If peroxidase is an enzyme and therefore contains certain pH tolerances, then when placed in solution with pH levels of three, seven, and ten and the reaction is measured by a colorimeter, then water will be the optimal solution for maximum reaction rate.” As seen in the tables and graphs, the data supported the hypothesis due to the fact that most enzymes have an optimal pH of 4-9. Although it was expected for water to be the optimal pH, it was also assumed that more drastic activity would happen with the other pH’s. For example, it was thought that it would still have some noticeable increase; however, when looking at the data and the graph, the numbers oscillate with no noticeable positive or negative trend. Tables 1 and 2 show that the absorbance rate in comparison to the absorbance rate in Table 3 are significantly smaller. Furthermore, after calculating the processed data for reaction rates and looking at the graph, pH 7 water had the highest rate. This experiment gives a good insight for future references about enzymes and the effect of environmental factors and its functions. By completing this experiment, knowledge collected about optimal pH in enzymes will help
LABORATORY REPORT Activity: Enzyme Activity Name: Natalie Banc Instructor: Elizabeth Kraske Date: 09.22.2016 Predictions 1. Sucrase will have the greatest activity at pH 6 2. Sucrase will have the greatest activity at 50 °C (122 °F) 3. Sucrase activity increases with increasing sucrose concentration Materials and Methods Effect of pH on Enzyme Activity 1. Dependent Variable amount of product (glucose and fructose) produced 2. Independent Variable pH 3. Controlled Variables temperature, amount of substrate (sucrose) present, sucrase + sucrose incubation time Effect of Temperature on Enzyme Activity 1. Dependent Variable amount of product (glucose and fructose) produced 2. Independent Variable temperature 3. Controlled Variables pH, amount of
Denatured sucrase was used as a control because it was inactive compared to the active sucrase. Using it slowed
The three things that can cause the enzyme to denature is a large change in pH level, High Temperature, and substrate concentration. According to our knowledge, we know that a large change in pH will cause instability in the protein structure thus resulting in denaturation of the enzyme. From the data, we can see that pH 3 (total:6.3) and 10 (total:6.2) were the slowest because pH 3 is probably the highest acid and pH 10 is the highest base. The highest acid or base pH represents a large change which would cause the enzyme to denature. The fastest pH was 6 (total:34.5), and it seems that there wasn’t a large change which resulted in a stable structure. The temperature in our experiment was not very high which didn’t result in denaturation of peroxidase. The temperature seemed to be a constant that didn’t affect the experiment. If the temperature was higher in pH 3 and low in pH 10, then it would cause pH 3 to denature even more which would make the pH 3 total about 4.0. Substrate concentration basically means the amount used for the substrate. The substrate in our experiment was 0.1% hydrogen peroxide. The 0.1% is the concentration amount. Just like temperature and pH, substrate concentration can speed the reaction only up to a certain limit. When we mixed pH 3 enzyme tube with substrate tube, we used 0.3 mL of hydrogen peroxide, but if we were to increase the amount, then the experiment would have been faster. Our
In this lab, our main focus was to find how sugar concentration affect yeast respiration rates. This was to simulate the process of cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is the process that cells use to transfer energy from the organic molecules in food to ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate). Glucose, CO2, and yeast (used as a catalyst in this experiment) are a few of the many vital components that contribute to cellular respiration. Sugar/ glucose is an important carbohydrate that can be made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. Carbon dioxide is given off as a waste product when energy is released by the breaking down of glucose. This can be used by plant cells in the process of photosynthesis to form new carbohydrates. Yeast is a single-celled fungus that can break down sugars (glucose) to help produce carbon dioxide.
To test reactions between catalase and hydrogen peroxide, groups of three to four people were formed. A scale of zero to five was used to describe the reactions, with zero being no reaction at all, one being a slow reaction, and five being a very fast reaction. The materials used were a test tube rack, six test tubes, a test tube clamp, forceps, a graduated cylinder, four small pieces of liver, one piece of potato, one piece of hamburger meat, approximately forty milliliters of hydrogen peroxide in a forty milliliter beaker, a splint, and matches. An ice bath and boiling water was required for testing, where a hot plate was used to boil the water. Each test tube given a label, which were “cold”, “room”, “hot”, “warm”, “potato”, “meat”, and
13. The solution was then filtered and the residue collected in a filter paper. It was left to dry and
In this experiment, one tested solutions that consisted of the standard yeast solution and added raw materials of interest. First, one measured and then added seven grams of Fleischmann 's Rapid-Rise yeast to a bottle containing two hundred and fifty milliliters of warm distilled water for the purposes of creating the standard yeast solution that was used in the fermentation experiment. Next, the standard yeast solution was added to each of the four fermentation flasks. After swirling the bottle, one and a half grams of the fermentation substrate was added into a beaker with fifteen milliliters of yeast suspension. The fermentation flask marked one required one and a half grams of Zulka Brand Morena Pure Cane Sugar as the fermentation substrate, the fermentation flask marked two required one and a half grams of Maseca Brand Corn Flour as the fermentation substrate, the fermentation flask marked three required one and a half grams of Carolina Biologicals Glucose as the fermentation substrate, and the fermentation flask marked four required one and a half grams of distilled water as the fermentation substrate. Then, the opening of each fermentation flask was covered with parafilm and one proceeded to gently mix the solutions. The part of the fermentation flask with calibration marks must be filled with the yeast suspension so that there is no empty space. Next, one placed the fermentation flasks in the water bath and recorded the carbon dioxide volume readings after the
In this lab, the optimal environment for an enzyme was observed in bacterial and fungal amylase. An enzyme is a substance produced by a living organism that is coded by proteins to catalyze chemical reactions throughout the body. Enzymes are what make the chemical reactions in living organisms possible. Enzymes act as catalysts to reactions, they lower the activation energy needed for reactions. However, enzymes require particular environments to function, and without proper conditions, enzymes
the propose of this experiment was too see if the chemical reaction of a enzyme can be made faster.
Abstract: Enzymes can catalyze chemical reactions by speeding up the chemicals activation energy. Temperature and pH are just two of the factors that affects enzymes and their involvement with chemicals and the way they function. Throughout this experiment, we conducted a study on peroxidase, which is an enzyme. The following information consist of the recordings of when it was exposed to four different pH levels to come up with an optimum pH and IRV at the end.
To catalyze a reaction, an enzyme will grab on (bind) to one or more reactant molecules. In this experiment we examined how increasing the volume of the extract added to the reaction would affect the rate of the reaction. The enzyme used was horseradish peroxidase which helps catalyze hydrogen peroxide. Using different pH levels, the absorbance rate of the reaction was measured to see at which condition the enzyme worked best. The rates of absorption were calculated using a spectrophotometer in 20 second intervals up to 120 seconds. It was hypothesized that the optimal pH for the enzyme was pH 7 while the 1.0 ml peroxidase would have the best reaction rate. At the end of the experiment the results prove the hypothesis to be incorrect.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of the experiments for week 5 and week 6 support each other in the further understanding of enzyme reactions. During week 5, the effects of a substrate and enzyme concentration on enzyme reaction rate was observed. Week 6, the effects of temperature and inhibitor on a reaction rate were monitored. For testing the effects of concentrations, we needed to use the table that was used in week 3, Cells. The 3 concentrations of enzymes were 0.5 ml, 1.0 ml, and 2.0 ml of turnip extract, while the substrate consisted of 0.1ml, 0.2 ml, and 0.4 ml of hydrogen peroxide. In a separate tube, the control was made up of turnip extract and guaiacol, known as the color reagent. This was recorded the absorbance every 20 seconds for 3 minutes.
The term fermentation refers to the chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms, typically involving effervescence and the giving off of heat (wikipedia). Sugars are converted to ethyl alcohol when fermentation happens. In this experiment we determined if yeast cells undergo fermentation when placed in a closed flask with no oxygen. Glucose and yeast are mixed together in a closed flask and allowed to incubate for about one hour. Then, tests are performed to determine if the products of aerobic and anaerobic respiration are present in the flasks.The citric acid cycle consists of a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of ATP (Biology). The tests detect the presence of carbon dioxide and ethanol. Carbon dioxide should be present irrespective of the type of respiration taking place, but ethanol is present only if fermentation has occurred. Another factor that can indicate whether fermentation occurred or cellular respiration occurred is the amount of glucose utilized during incubation.Fermentation uses more glucose because the process of fermentation is much less efficient than cellular respiration in terms of energy production per molecule of glucose used. The open flask (control) and the closed
Bio Chem lab Report 04 Enzyme Biochemistry Group Member: Chan Man Jeun Duncan (16002621) Law Sze Man (16000478) Introduction Enzyme is a protein base structure substance in our body. It works at a biocatalyst that will catalyzing the chemical reaction, which helps to speed up the chemical reaction. Enzyme could only function in specific shape, and the shape of enzyme is depending on the environment, therefore it is hard for an enzyme to function well in an extreme environment. The aim of this experiment is to see can the enzyme functions normally in different environment(pH, temperature and salt concentration) via using starch solution, amylase from saliva, 0.5M HCl solution, 0.5M NaOH solution and NaCl solution, and using iodine solution