Enzyme Lab Report

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Enzymes are giant molecular biological catalyst.They are responsible for thousands of metabolic processes that systain life.Enzymes are highly selective greatly accelerating both the rate and specificity of of metabolic reactions from the digestion of food to the synthesis of DNA..Most enzymes are proteins.They possesses a three-dimensional structure.
Enzymes act by converting a starting molecule called as substrate into different molecules called as products.Almost all chemical rection in an biological cell need enzymes.
The basic mechanism by which enzymes catalyze chemical reactions begin with the binding of a substrate to the active site on the enzymes.The active site is the specific region of the enzyme which allows substarte to combines
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Koshland in his induced fit hypothesis of 1958 suggested that the structure of an substrate may be complementary to that of th active site in the enzyme-substrate complex but not in an free-enzyme a conformational change occurs in the gemoatry of an enzyme during the binding of substrate which results in the required matching of structures.This hypothesis requires active site to be floppy and the substrate to be rigid allowing the enzyme to wrap itself the substrate bringing the catalytic sites and reacting gro ups together.

Enzymes have varying degrees of specificity some enzymes have absolute specificity for one substrate and no others while other enzymes react with substrates with similar functional groups side chains,or positions on a chain.
Enzymes shows different degrees of specificity:
1.Relative,low or bond specificity
In this type the enzyme acts on substrates that are similar in structure and contains the same type of bonds e.g
a.Amlyase which acts on alpha 1-4 glycosidic bonds in starch dextrin and
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e.g isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme acts on isocitrate by oxidation followed by decarboylation
Isocitrate is converting into alpha-ketoglutarate with the help of isocitrate dehydrogenase.
1.Effect of nzyme concentration
The rate of enzyme is directly propotional to the concentration of enzyme provided that the condition of the reaction remains constant and sufficient substrate is supplied.
2. Effect of substrate concentration
The rateof reaction increases as the substrate concentration incteases until a certain point (Vmax) at which the reaction attains maximal velocity.
Any Increase in substrate concentration after this point cause further increase in the rate of reaction because at Vmax enzyme moleclues are completed saturated with substrate molecules.
3.Effect of temperature
At very low temperature enzymes are inactive.Enzymes activity increase gradually with the rse in temperature until a temperature at which the enzyme attains its maximal activity this temperature is called optimum temperature which lies between 37-40 c in humans.
4.Effect of pH
Each enzyme has an optimum pH which it attains its maximal activity

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