Substrate concentration basically means the amount used for the substrate. The substrate in our experiment was 0.1% hydrogen peroxide. The 0.1% is the concentration amount. Just like temperature and pH, substrate concentration can speed the reaction only up to a certain limit. When we mixed pH 3 enzyme tube with substrate tube, we used 0.3 mL of hydrogen peroxide, but if we were to increase the amount, then the experiment would have been faster.
The activities of most enzymes follow a bell-shaped curve, increasing from zero in the strong acid region up to a maximum value which is identified at the optimum pH. Enzymes display their highest activity at their respective optimum conditions as seen in figure 2, the optimum pH is 6.5 since it has the highest absorption peak on the curve, and then decreasing to pH 8.5 which is the the strong alkaline region (Figure 2). The state of protonation is responsible for this behaviour, the protonation of one functional group promotes the catalytic activity, while protonation of another essential group breaks it down. In this case two conventional titration curves, an increasing and a decreasing one, form the bell-shaped curve as seen in figure 2. A pH balance of 0-6 is acid, a pH balance of 7 is neutral, and a pH balance above 7.5-14 is alkaline.
The different between the biggest concentration and smallest concentration is 1.5M, which is quite large. To know the relationship between times takes to react and concentration of acid, the difference 1.5M is appropriate to compare in different concentration. That much difference was able to notice the significant difference in results, which was 96.30 and
3.2 Effect of Pressure and Equivalence Ratio Fig. 3 (1) - (3) give the effects of pressure and equivalence ratio on ignition delay times of DME/air, n-butane/air and 50%DME50%n-butane/air binary fuel. Note that for all mixtures, ignition delay times decreased with the increase of pressure, meaning that the increase of pressure can promote fuel ignition in current conditions. This is mostly due to the increased fuel concentration and enhanced molecule collision probability at elevated pressures. The influences of equivalence ratio on the ignition delays of DME/air and n-butane/air mixtures were investigated at pressures of 2 and 10 atm.
The HA removal efficiency was less than 50% (Fig. 1a). When the CB dosage was higher than 0.2 mmol/L, considerable amounts of flocs formed. At a CB dosage of 0.3 mmol/L, the residual turbidity was approximately 1.5 NTU after sedimentation, corresponding to 89% of HA removal. The residual HA concentration of the settled water could be controlled within 1.50 mg/L.
Any Increase in substrate concentration after this point cause further increase in the rate of reaction because at Vmax enzyme moleclues are completed saturated with substrate molecules. 3.Effect of temperature At very low temperature enzymes are inactive.Enzymes activity increase gradually with the rse in temperature until a temperature at which the enzyme attains its maximal activity this temperature is called optimum temperature which lies between 37-40 c in humans. 4.Effect of pH Each enzyme has an optimum pH which it attains its maximal activity
Standard solution The standard solution was tested for its value and was used in the calculation of the patient's urea and creatinine value. ii. Running patient's specimen a. Creatinine 1ml of creatinine reagent 1 and 200ml of creatinine reagent 2 was pipetted into the same 1ml cuvette. Following that, 40ml of patient's sample was transferred into the cuvette. The absorbance of the mixture was measured at 30s (A1), 5min and 6min intervals.
The increase in collisions between the substrate molecules is due to the increase in rate. Usually the rate of enzyme catalyzed reaction doubles for every ten degree rise in temperature. Increase in temperature beyond optimum level causes a sharp decline in the rate due to denaturation of the enzyme. At around 40 degrees Celsius most enzymes have an optimum temperature and when temperatures are reduced below freezing point enzymes are inactivated but they gain their catalytic properties once the temperature is increased. Figure: (www.bbc.co.uk) 2. pH – Enzymes function most effectively over a particular pH range which is quite often a narrow range.
Celery started with a pH of 6.05 and dropped down to a pH of 5.03 after 30 drops that is not nearly as drastic as alka seltzer. But, it shows how celery does not have a buffer because of the drop in pH and is not able to create more hydroxide ions when acid is added. Liver started with a pH of 6.50 and after 30 drops the pH dropped down to 6.03 which means the drop in pH is only .47 and looks similar to the data of the positive control of alka seltzer. The data in this lab follows the hypothesis of testing the HCI of liver and celery, then liver will contain a buffer and celery will not. This conclusion can be drawn because of celery’s large drop in pH and the data’s resemblance to the water data meaning celery cannot hydrolyze ions and keep a constant pH.
Hence, higher histamine’s concentrations were needed to achieve EC50 as the antagonist’s concentration increased. The calculated pA2 and KB of mepyramine were 10.148 and 7.1143 x 10-11 respectively whereas the calculated pA2 and KB of Drug A were 11.771 and 1.6961 x 10-12
Higher muscle lactate accumulation and venous plasma lactate concentration is observed in a high ambient temperature compared to a moderate temperature. It was previously shown that muscular glycogen utilization is enhanced in during exercise under high temperature (Febbraio et al., 1994). Therefore it is thought that the increase concentration of lactate in muscle under high temperature is caused by accelerated anaerobic glycolysis. Thus more lactate is released into the blood stream. When the exercise to exhaustion in the high temperature happens, muscle glycolygen are not exhausted.
The constants of the experiment, will be the amount of water used and the Alka Selter compound. The control in the experiment is water. Units used while timing the productivity of gas from an Alka-Seltzer tablet in different temperatures is, seconds. In order to find out if temperature controls the rate of chemical reaction, whether hot water is a more effective way to make the gas produce at a faster speed, it would be necessary to compare the results of different temperatures at the end of each trial. In order to do this the scientists will measure the volume of gas that is produced within a 10 second interval time after the tablet begins to react.
An experiment was conducted in order to determine the oxygen consumption in dry and soaked peas within two different temperatures of water. Cellular respiration is the release of energy by metabolic chemical oxidation in the mitochondria, (DeStefano 2016). The hypothesis was the germinating warm water peas would have the highest rate of oxygen consumption. Within this experiment, a twenty-one degree celsius bath and a six degree celsius bath were set up. Then, a one hundred mL graduated cylinder was filled with fifty mL of water.