Literature review Research question is how different temperatures affect the catalase enzyme. What is an enzyme? Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions. Substrates are molecules that enzymes could act upon and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products.
As a part of our study on how to completely extract trimyristin from nutmeg, we had to determine the best way to find a solvent that would properly recrystalize it. We used triphenylmethane as a test compound, attempting to find a solvent that would allow it to recrystalize. The most suitable solvent would dissolve the solute when the solvent is hot, not dissolve it when the solvent is cold, and should be fairly volatile and easily removable from the desired product. We tested water as a potential solvent and triphenylmethane would not dissolve when the water was at room temperature or when it was hot, so this was not a good solvent. When we tested methanol, triphenylmethan did not dissolve at room temperature, but did dissove when the methanol was hot, and then recrystalized into a solid when the mehtanol was cooled, so this was a suitable solvent.
Enzymes have a region called the active site. This is because a substrate has specific chemical properties that satisfy the chemical properties of the active site. Enzymes quicken reactions by decreasing the amount of energy needed for the reactant to undergo a specific reaction by providing an alternative reaction pathway. In this experiment, the enzyme catalase will be used. The enzyme catalase is commonly found in animal and plant cells, but a substantial amount is found in liver.
Lab Report -- Relationship on Enzyme activity and substrate concentration Research Question: Is the more concentrated the substrate of hydrogen peroxide is, the shorter the time taken for the paper disc to rise from the bottom of the beaker? Aim: The opposite of hull hypothesis Background Information: This experiment aimed to investigate on the relationship of the substrate concentration and enzyme activity. Enzymes are proteins produced by a cell that acts as catalysts to increase the rate of a specific chemical reaction without changing the reaction itself. Under some conditions, substrate will bind to the active site of an enzyme and form an enzyme-substrate complex. The enzyme would fasten the chemical reaction and the substrate will
Then, tests are performed to determine if the products of aerobic and anaerobic respiration are present in the flasks.The citric acid cycle consists of a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of ATP (Biology). The tests detect the presence of carbon dioxide and ethanol. Carbon dioxide should be present irrespective of the type of respiration taking place, but ethanol is present only if fermentation has occurred. Another factor that can indicate whether fermentation occurred or cellular respiration occurred is the amount of glucose utilized during incubation.Fermentation uses more glucose because the process of fermentation is much less efficient than cellular respiration in terms of energy production per molecule of glucose used. The open flask (control) and the closed
Environmental Factors’ Effect on the Speed of Chemical Reactions Hypothesis: pH 8 solution will produce more oxygen during the chemical reaction than pH 3 because pH 8 is more basic and therefore would not denature the enzyme. Background information: The main function of all enzyme proteins is to act as a catalyst, speed up the chemical reaction and provide a place for it. The enzymes interact with specific substrates by combining at the active site of the enzyme. After this occurs the substrate detaches and leaves the active site as products, so the enzyme can become reusable to start the cycle all over again. The products of the chemical reaction are
What is the effect of temperatures 10°C , 20°C, 40°C, 60°C and 70°C ± 1/°C on yeast fermentation when baking bread? ii. Aim: The focal aim of this experiment is to investigate the effect that temperature has on the growth and respiration of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) fermentation. iii. Background Information: Yeast fermentation is directly affected by the change in temperature, because the rate of chemical reactions is affected by temperature.
To maintain the reaction in liquid phase, it is important to control the temperature of the reaction mixture. A large excess of water is used for this purpose. Moreover, methanol is added to prevent phase separation due to propylene oxide is not completely soluble in water. Cooling process is the irreversible exothermic process applied in production of Propylene Glycol by hydrolysis of Propylene Oxide. It lowers the temperature of mixture and ensures the mixture in liquid phase.
Saponification is important to the industrial user for it helps to know the amount of free fatty acid that is present in a food material. The quantity of free fatty acid can be distinguished by determining the quantity of alkali that must be added to the fat or oil to make it neutral. This test is done by warming a known amount of oil or fat with alcoholic KOH, which will convert the free fatty acid into soap. This soap is removed and the amount of fat remaining is then determined by subtracting the amount of obtained soap from the amount of fat originally taken before the test. The saponification number or “sap” measures the present bonded or unbonded acids in oil or fats.
David Ramey of Butyl Fuel LLC was able to introduce a two-step fermentation process to produce butanol from starch/glucose without considerable amounts of acetone and ethanol. The first stage called acidogenesis is where butyric acid conversion from glucose happens. Solventogenesis, the second stage of the process, occurs by converting the butyric acid to butanol (Chen et al.,