Literature review Research question is how different temperatures affect the catalase enzyme. What is an enzyme? Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions. Substrates are molecules that enzymes could act upon and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products.
Introduction: What are enzymes? Chemical reactions that take place in living cells are known as metabolic reactions. There are two types of reactions: • Anabolic Reaction (Constructive) • Catabolic Reaction (Destructive) Substance that accelerate chemical reactions are known as catalysts. Enzymes are biological catalysts, because they accelerate chemical reactions that occur in cells. Activation energy is required to start a chemical reaction.
Substrate concentration basically means the amount used for the substrate. The substrate in our experiment was 0.1% hydrogen peroxide. The 0.1% is the concentration amount. Just like temperature and pH, substrate concentration can speed the reaction only up to a certain limit. When we mixed pH 3 enzyme tube with substrate tube, we used 0.3 mL of hydrogen peroxide, but if we were to increase the amount, then the experiment would have been faster.
The function of enzymes is to speed up reactions by lowering the amount of activation energy needed to get the reaction started. Along with that enzymes can only work in specific temperatures and specific pHs as well. If the temperature or pH is too high or to low, they won 't work as quickly or may not work at all. For enzymes there are two main hypothesizes, these are know as the induced fit hypothesis and the lock and key hypothesis. In the induced fit hypothesis the binding of the substrate changes the shape of the enzyme’s active site.
This is because high sodium chloride concentrations denature the enzyme, preventing the substrate from binding; as a result the enzyme cannot break down starch into glucose. Variables: Independent: Concentration of sodium chloride (%) Dependent: Rate of change of absorbance (Abss-1) Controlled: -Iodine and starch concentration. Both the concentrations of starch and iodine affect the rate of absorbance. Therefore this will be kept constant by creating the same mixtures, which will be used for all the trials. -Volume of solution inside cuvette will be kept constant for all trials by adding only 2.5cm3 of starch and iodine solution and 0.5cm3 of Amylase and Sodium-Chloride solution to the cuvette.
Then, tests are performed to determine if the products of aerobic and anaerobic respiration are present in the flasks.The citric acid cycle consists of a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of ATP (Biology). The tests detect the presence of carbon dioxide and ethanol. Carbon dioxide should be present irrespective of the type of respiration taking place, but ethanol is present only if fermentation has occurred. Another factor that can indicate whether fermentation occurred or cellular respiration occurred is the amount of glucose utilized during incubation.Fermentation uses more glucose because the process of fermentation is much less efficient than cellular respiration in terms of energy production per molecule of glucose used. The open flask (control) and the closed
Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts that increase the rate of a reaction without being chemically changed. Enzymes are globular proteins that contain an active site. A specific substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme chemically and structurally (4). Enzymes also increase the rate of a reaction by decreasing the activation energy for that reaction which is the minimum energy required for the reaction to take place (3). Multiple factors affect the activity of an enzyme (1).
For example, fermentation occurs in yeast in order to gain energy by transforming sugar into alcohol. Fermentation is also used by bacteria, they convert carbohydrates into lactic acid. Ethanol fermentation is done by yeast and certain bacteria, when pyruvate is separated into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol fermentation has a net chemical equation: C6H12O6 (glucose) > 2C2H5OH (ethanol) + 2CO2 (carbon dioxide). This process of ethanol fermentation is used in the making of wine, bread, and beer.
It measures the flow of heat in the phase transitions. It is used widely in most of the industry include foods, agriculture and etc. If the samples tested undergoes endothermic process which absorb energy, the temperature of the sample pan will decrease, so more amount of heat is required to ensure the temperature to reach equilibrium. This extra amount of heat is same as the amount of heart absorbed in endothermic process (Figura and Teixeira, 2007). (Slideshare.net, 2016) The peak is associated with the onset temperature, which the substances starts to melt.
The activity of an enzyme is affected by its environmental factors, and any change results in an alteration in the rate of the reaction caused by the enzyme (2). Naturally, the enzymes are adjusted by producing optimum rates of reaction or they adapt to function well in extreme conditions (2). Temperature, pH, and enzyme and substrate concentration all affect enzyme activity. The rate of reaction of an enzyme catalyzed reaction is affected by the difference in enzyme and substrate concentration. Increasing substrate and enzyme concentration will increase the rate of the reaction because more substrate molecules will be colliding with enzyme molecules, resulting in products being formed (1).
In order to do this the scientists will measure the volume of gas that is produced within a 10 second interval time after the tablet begins to react. Then the scientist will observe the different rates of reaction with temperature. The Boltzmann distribution of law, indicates that high temperature makes molecules gain high energy contents (pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja). In order to measure the reaction rate, the scientists must use the same volume of water at three different starting temperatures: hot tap
The aim of this experiment was to create Butyl Ethanoate by the process of reflux esterification using 1-Butanol (, 16mL) and Ethanoic Acid (17.4M, 10mL) as raw materials. A catalyst sulphuric acid (18.0M, 2.0mL) was used to offer an alternate reaction pathway and forcing the equilibrium to shift to the right as it is a dehydrating agent result in a greater yield of ester. All reactants were heated under reflux for a total time of 45 minutes, boiling chips were added into the pear shaped flask to encourage even boiling and prevents the occurrence of superheating.
Enzymes are catalysts in biological systems, that lower the activation energy, so that molecules can begin reacting with each other. Since enzymes have a very selective active site, if the enzyme shape is changed or denatured, it won’t allow the enzyme to bind. Catalytic enzymes break down the toxic hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen gas. (Bryer) (Baker) The purpose of these labs were to see how different concentrations of pH, and hydrogen peroxide would affect the enzymes, catalase and
The goal of this experiment was to synthesize the unknown ester through Fischer Esterification. This procedure involves treating a carboxylic acid with an alcohol and a strong acid catalyst. This procedure was also catalyzed with heat at 160oC-180oC, to keep the temperature from exceeding the boiling points of the compounds in use. The acid catalyst protonated the double bonded oxygen atom to force the atom to pull two electrons away from the double bond in order to stabilize the atom’s charge. As this electron shift occurred, the alcohol attacked the carbocation that lost its double bond.
In turn, the kidneys use the carbon dioxide and water to create or absorb bicarbonate. The lungs and kidneys work hand in hand because the lungs adjust the acid concentration quickly while the kidneys reabsorb or produce bicarbonate. What the lung and the kidney are doing for each other is termed compensation. Protein buffering is used in both intracellular and extracellular buffering. Proteins are considered negative buffers and pair well with hydrogen.