Epidemiology Studies

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Epidemiology is the study of occurrence, causes and influence of a disease, in a population which provide information based on health policies as well as medicine through examining the factors of a disease (Bryan et al., 1971). Epidemiology studies has been used to study several disease such as AIDS, Food poisoning, Influenza and Anthrax. Epidemiology plays a major role in the health of community. First of all, it determines the cause of a particular disease in terms of the mode of transmission and risk factors. It also examines current and newly developed therapeutic method (Gevin, 2003). In addition, it also plays a role in developing public policy based on genetic and environmental factors.
Epidemiology methods can be divided into three
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Etiologic/agents can be divided into two groups; living and non-living which can further classified based upon pathogenicity,infection dose,reservoir as well as the source (Achtman et al.,1999). Meanwhile, methods of transmission are the pathway that leads the agents to enter into the host. It can be either direct contact transmission (agent to host) or vehicle transmission (agent to inanimate vehicle to host) or airborne transmission (agent to dust to host) or vector borne transmission (agent to arthropod to host) (Peasce, 1996). On the other hand, the final link in the chain infection is the host in which the organisms enter via mucous membrane, lungs and skin (Haensch et al., 2010). However, the development of the disease is based on specific (immunity) and non-specific (enzymes, genetic factors) responses.
There are few limitations to epidemiology studies such as bias in the data and confounding in exposure.
In this experiment, a model of transmission of disease was set up as well as organism causing the disease was determined. In addition, the origin and pathway of the disease were also identified.
All the materials and methods follows as per practical manual page 15 to 16 (BTH 3722, Class notes
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Meanwhile in Europe, second pandemic of plaque occur which lead to 30% of death of the total population and known as Black Death (WHO,2000). Plaque epidemic occur mostly in India, Peru, Africa, Vietnam and Asia with exception of Australia. The mortality rate for treated bubonic is 1-15% and 40% for septicemic .However, if it was untreated the mortality rate is 50% for bubonic and 100% for septimic as well as pneumonic and thus result in death within 24 hours (David et al., 2008). According to WHO (2000), 80613 cases and 6587 deaths were recorded based upon reports of plaque from 38 countries (1954-1997). The highest number of cases is 6004 in 1967 whereas the lowest number of cases occurs in 1981 which is 200.However, based on this experiment; the infection is based upon the number of black beads found. Out of 19 participant, 3 person were infected but with different number of black beads. This could be due the present of black beads before the start of experiment which was not known by the participants The highest number of beads was found in Dae Jin bag’s , 64 black beads and this leads to respiratory shock and death based on range that has been given. Based on the number of infected person, the mortality rate is 2/19, morbidity rate is 3/19 and case fatality rate is

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