Epidemiology In Public Health

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1. PUBLIC HEALTH
Public health: is referred to as the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through joint efforts and informed choices of society, individuals, communities, public and private, and organizations. Its concerns is threats to health based on health analysis of the population. The population could be large involving several continent in a case of a pandemic, or it could be as small as a handful of people.
Public health focuses on in intervention in the area of improving health and quality of life through prevention and treatment of disease and other physical or mental health conditions. This is carried out through surveillance of cases and health indicators and promotion of healthy behaviours
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EPIDEMIOLOGY
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the causes, patterns and effects of disease on the health conditions of a defined populations. Epidemiology is the cornerstone of public health, shapens policy decisions and evidence-based practice through identification of risk factors for the disease and focus for preventive healthcare. Epidemiology helps to develop methodology used in clinical research in public health and to some extent in basic research in the biological sciences.
Epidemiology literally means the study of what is upon the people. It is derived from Greek epi- upon, among; demos- people, district; logos- study, word, discourse. The word epidemiology was first been used to describe the study of epidemics in 1802 by the Spanish physician Villalba in Epidemiología Española. But now it is widely applied to cover the description and causation of epidemic disease, disease in general, and even many non-disease, health-related conditions, such as obesity and high blood pressure. Therefore, epidemiology is based upon how the pattern of the disease cause changes in the function of
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HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS.
Health care is the maintenance of health through the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases, injury, illness and any other physical or mental impairments in human body. Health care is rendered by health professionals. The health care provided could either be at the primary level, or secondary level or tertiary level.
Health care varies from countries to countries and it is largely influenced by social and, economic conditions as well as health policies of the country. Countries and jurisdictions have different policies and plans based on personal and population-based health care goals in their society. Health care system is an organization setup to meet the health needs of target populations. Their configuration differs between national and subnational entities. Mostly health care planning occurs more centrally among governments or other coordinating bodies but in some cases it is distributed among market participants. For any health care system to function well it requires a robust financing mechanism, a well-trained and adequately paid workforce, decisions and policies must be based on reliable information, with a well maintained health facilities and logistics to deliver quality technologies and
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