Equicentration: How Tomine The Titration Of Lemon Juice

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The technique utilized in this experiment was titration and is used to determine the concentration of an unknown solution by reaction with a known concentration of solution. In a titration, the titrant is placed into the burette and the analyte poured into the conical flask using a pipette. Titration involves adding a small amount of titrant slowly to the analyte to achieve the equivalence point. The equivalence point is when the moles of standard soluton are same as the solution of unknown concentration and is produced at a pH of 7. The indicator used in this experiment was Phenolphthalein which determined the end point, which was shown as a form of colour change. In this experiment, citric acid was titrated with sodium hydroxide producing an endpoint between pH range of 8.3-10. (EASYCHEM, 2018) Citric acid has three acidic protons therefore it is a triprotic acid (lumen, 2018). The accurate concentration of the sodium hydroxide must be known to determine the citric acid concentration. The aim of this experiment was to determine the citric acid(weak acid) content of Lemon Juice by titrating it with standard sodium hydroxide solution(strong base). Commercially available lemon juice has a concentration around 34.1 to 48.0 g/L (0.177 to 0.249 mol/L) of citric acid (intext reference). It was hypothesised that the citric acid concentration of the lemon juice investigated would be in the range of 0.177 to 0.249 mol/L.
Commercially available lemon juice has a

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