In analyzing stage, the analysis of source text is performed to find the meaning and the styles of source text. The analysis is basically to find the author’s meaning in writing the text, the way the author expresses the meaning, and the way the author embodies the style in the choice of words, phrases, and sentences. In transferring stage, the translator must replace all elements in ST with the equivalent elements in TT. All the elements in ST, in both its content ad form, must be matched. The important thing in this matching is the matching is not equality.
Halliday & Hassan take the view that the primary determinant of whether a set of sentences do or do not constitute a text depends on cohesive relationships within or between the sentences. (Brown & G. Yule, 1983, P. 191)The concept of texture is entirely appropriate to express the property of being a text'. A text has texture and this is what distinguishes text from something which that is not
The former can be broken down into Descriptive Translation Studies and Translation Theory, which in turn are divided into Product, Process and Function oriented respectively (in: Baker 2005: 278). Focusing on the branch named Translation Theory, it is necessary to point out that this is a blanket term. This means that Translation Theory covers many definitions, methods and other translation related issues. As Newmark noted, Translation Theory states and clearly defines what are the most appropriate methods of translation of various texts belonging to different categories (Newmark 1991: 19). Newmark (1981:38) claims that “translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and/or statement in one language by the same message and/or statement in another language.
At first let’s start with discuss the meaning o translation, what is the meaning of it.. Translation means how to transport the idea of text, meaning of it which correspond in the same way and the same effects so can the readers or the audience understand it in clear way as the original one there is two key terms in the practice of translation: fidelity and equivalence. The translation target is how we can explore linguistics aspect of translation fidelity is the value of who we can discuss the translation to be clear to the reader. Equivalence is to discuss the language itself; it didn’t have a value judgment Both of them have complicated perception, there is no comparing word by word... we are comparing text especially if it pass through culture. We can’t add a part in the translated text
A translator may subject him-/herself either to the original text, with the norms it has realized, or to the norms active in the target culture, or in that section of it which would host the end product. Translation is a complicated task, during which the meaning of the source-language text should be conveyed to the target-language readers. In other words, translation can be defined as encoding the meaning and form in the target language by means of the decoded meaning and form of the source language. Different theorists state various definitions for translation. The concept of norms in translation theory was
Decimation: Hastuti defines it as “an extreme condensation” (Hastutui, 2015, p.65). Lomheim explains that condensation, deletion, and decimation all dealing with making the text shorter (as cited in Andeman & Roger, 1999, p.201). f. Transcription strategy and the strategy of dislocation: Transcription is used when a translator faces a word that he does not know, so he transfers it as it is in the SL (Michael, n.d., p.117). It is used when there is a lexical need or when the translator does not know the spoken language. On the other hand, dislocation is used when SL message is not found in TL, to make the message “acceptable” (Michael, n.d., p.117).
Universality of maxims However, among thecontemporary linguists and philosophers there have been intreste in Grice’s view as it become the basic concept in pragmatics. They argue that his cooprative princiole and maxims cannot be generally to all uttrances applied due to intercultural differences, Keenan (1976). Keenan did some studies on Malagasy people and found that they are breaking the maxims of quantity mostly. They tend to be not following Grice princple accualy they were following the oppsite princple to achieve sucsse in conversation cooprative . And she supported that by providing a question and its reply as .
Newmark (1988: 83) wrote that it is possible to find the closest equivalent, but impossible to fully translate cultural phrases. He claimed that: “Their translation uses are limited, since they are not accurate, but they can be used in general texts, publicity and propaganda, as well as for brief explanation to readers who are ignorant of the relevant SL culture. They have a greater pragmatic impact than culturally neutral terms. Occasionally,
Toury describes other norms: 1) Preliminary norms, which vary depending on translation policy, whether translation occurs, choice of text, and directness of translation. 2) Operational norms, which describe the presentation and linguistic nature of the TT. This involves matricial norms that refer to the TT as a whole, such as the addition of footnotes and passages, or the omission or relocation of passages; and textual-linguistic norms that cover language and stylistic features. Munday, Jeremy. Introducing Translation Studies.
Originally it was meant to differentiate between pairs of language varieties which have a structural and functional relationship but over time the definition has evolved. In 1967, Fishman stated that any situation where language varieties can be distinguished based on function can be considered diglossic. The changes were mainly due to the fact that Ferguson’s definition of diglossia restricted the types of language varieties used whereas, Fishman expanded the description. His definition focused on a High-Low distinction in which the H variety has the following