Equivalence In Translation

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The purpose of this research paper is to examine equivalence as a translation problem. Equivalence has made many controversies among scholars since its appearance in the field of translation until recent years. Although many debates around this notion, it still has the most attention in translation studies. For instance, Leonardi (2000) believes that equivalence is the central issue in translation although its definition, relevance, and applicability within the field of translation theory have caused heated controversy, and many different theories of the concept of equivalence have been elaborated within this field in the past fifty years. According to Halverson (1997, p.207-210) equivalence is defined as a relationship existing between two…show more content…
However, Jakobson (1959) with his introducing of the notion (equivalence in difference) highlighted the equivalence problem to be the main issue of many later kinds of research in translation. Jakobson (1959:146) states it clearly that: "Equivalence in difference is the cardinal problem of language and the pivotal concern of linguistics. Like any receiver of verbal messages, the linguist acts as their interpreter". He introduced three types of translation: interlingual (between two languages), intralingual (rewording in one language) and intersemiotic (between sign systems). He thinks that there is no full equivalence between any two languages because the translator is making use of synonyms and we cannot rely on them to be identical. He defines translation as being two equivalent messages with two different codes. Vinay and Darbelnet (1995) agree with him on the insufficient outcome of relying solely on the linguistic approach of translation. They state that translation involves the same situation but with different words. Jakobson with the other two theorists mentioned above think that translation is not impossible because there are different methods that the translator can choose from in order to…show more content…
Catford presented three types of translation based on three criteria: the extent of translation (full vs. partial translation), the grammatical rank at which the translation equivalence is established (rank-bound translation vs. unbounded translation) and the levels of language involved in translation (total translation vs. restricted translation). The second type is the one related to the notion of equivalence. In rank-bound translation, the equivalence exits in each word or morpheme in the source language while in the unbound translation, the equivalence is not related to a particular rank but we can find it at sentence, clause or other levels. He distinguishes between the formal corresponding and (textual equivalence). He defines the second one as "any TL text or portion of text which is observed on a particular occasion …, to be the equivalent of a given SL text or portion of text." He asserts that "The central problem of translation practice is that of finding TL translation equivalents. A central task of translation theory is that of defining the nature and conditions of translation

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