The North and South emerged as two distinct regions because they had various differences. These differences included the geography, the economy, slavery, and transportation. The North was built mainly on factories and trade and opposed slavery, while the South’s foundation was agriculture and slavery. The geography of the South was more rural than the North and the North had more means of transportation than the South. These drastic characteristics created a vast divide between the two regions.
During the pre-civil war time period— also known as the antebellum years— America experienced a widespread transformation for the sake of its economy. With the booming belief of the Manifest Destiny, America’s constant desire for westward expansion caused disputes between the North and the South regarding the establishment of free states and slave states, which led to certain compromises such as the Missouri Compromise. After the Market Revolution, the North and South used its new gained land to create different means of economic gains; the North became industrialized through manufacturing, while the South became an agricultural industry dependent on cotton. However, as America’s boundaries expanded, tensions between the North and South grew, often leading to compromises in bloodshed. The drastic differences between the two groups eventually transformed America into a divided nation of sectionalism economically, politically, and socially.
The South was offended by the North. The North had prominent economy. Northern states based their economy on trade and manufacture goods. Document 3 states, “ the North’s economy came to depend more on trade than on agriculture.” Document 5 also inform how cities in the North grew promptly, the railway system, and the shipping industry.
Also the South used slaves for free labor, and did not have many immigrant workers at all. The economies of both the North and the South were fueled by many different classes of people. In the North, the middle class and lower class workers often did the manufacturing. While in the South indentured servants would work on plantations to grow tobacco, indigo, and cotton which were all very labor intensive. Once these people got out of servitude they would seek to farm the land themselves but often would not have the means to do so which led to a poor class of people who could not even afford slaves.
With American manufactures rising, the government decided to impose a tariff or tax on all imported and exported goods. The excess tax would decrease the import of foreign goods and increase business for the American manufactures in the North. This forced the South to either pay more for their goods, get the goods from the North or manufacture their goods themselves. Slavery was holding the Southern economy together. The South needed slavery and every day more and more Americans opposed it.
The demonstrations of division in America coexisted many: utopian societies, clashes over public space, backlash alongside immigrants, urban rebellions, black demonstration, and Indian oppositions. America was a separated land in need of change with the South in the biggest demand. The South trusted heavily on agriculture, equally opposed to the North, which was vastly populated and an industrialized union. The South produced cotton, which remained its main cash crop and countless Southerners knew that hefty reliance on slave labor would damage the South ultimately, but their forewarnings were not regarded. The South was constructed on a totalitarian system.
The “Era of Good Feelings,” from 1815-1825, was not an accurate label of the period after the War of 1812 because of various conflicts in economic nationalism , disagreements in politics, and the disunion of the citizens. In addition, several sectional issues emerged, mostly between the North and the South, regarding to the Tariff of 1816 and the conflict over slavery. Both nationalism and sectionalism had a great influence on whether the period from 1815-1825 was actually the “Era of Good Feelings.” Despite the fact that nationalism was emerging, it also caused many economic issues, thus, the “Era of Good Feelings” was not labeled accurately. After the War of 1812, many Americans had a feeling of patriotism in the 1820s when they were still celebrating the Fourth of July after many years, which shows how unified the citizens were.
The growth of nationalism and sectionalism were the heart of the Era of Good Feelings; it was the time for America to get to know herself. As the Era of Good Feelings flowered, the entire country and its inhabitants benefitted greatly. The United States during the 1820s was not very populated compared to modern times (E). John C. Calhoun,
The North had many advantages. They beat the South in population they could draw soldiers from. The North had 22 million citizens where the South only had 5.5 million citizens. The North could transport supplies and people faster because of their roads, canals, and railroads. However the South disconnected from itself with barely any railroads and hard to move soldiers and goods from place to place.
The Era of Not So Good Feelings Many historians label the period after the War of 1812 as the “Era of Good Feelings” but it certainly did not seem that way towards many others. This so called “Era of Good Feelings” dealt with the extension of slavery and the differing views on that subject between the North and the South, the American System that helped the United States industrialize and expand but led the country from nationalism to new sectionalism views; thus causing tensions to rise. Slavery had been protracted since the 1600s and with the extension of slavery and many differing views from both the Northerners and Southerners, it became a huge issue. Northerners opposed the extension of slavery because of the 3/5 Compromise which provided unfair representation to slave states compared to the northern states.
So they became more focused on industry. Items like cotton, wool, pig iron, weapons, furniture, and other important items were being produced at a faster rate than the south. " By 1860, 90 percent of the nation 's manufacturing output came from the northern states” (Industry and Economy during the Civil War) The need for slaves in the north had reduced drastically. Slavery wasn 't needed in the North as much as it was in the south.
The North was much stronger than the South. The North had a stronger and more stable economy. Besides owing large plantations and farming, The North controlled over 50 percent of the population, railroad mileage, iron/steel production, wealth, exports, and factories. Free states attracted and became home to the majority of European immigration.
The North had railroad links that would transport their supplies, guns, ammunition, and uniforms from their factories to the frontlines. At the time the North had a population of 22 million people against the 9 million in the South (of whom almost half were slaves.) The North was more industrial and produced 94 percent of the USA’s pig iron and 97 percent of its firearms.
Pangloss: Martin, there is no doubt that we have faced great suffering in recent years. However, had I not suffered the “hellish torment of disease (Voltaire 8),” hanging, dissections, lashings, and rowing in the galleys (Voltaire 75), I would not feel the happiness of enjoying this walk with you in this beautiful and bountiful garden. All events of suffering experience throughout our existence are linked in this best of all possible worlds (Voltaire 79). And I must say, my dear Martin, that “nothing could be better (Voltaire 2)” and we are living a life of true happiness cultivating our land.