The important features of child ego state are creativity, anxiety, depression, dependence, fear, joy, emotional sentimental etc. (iii) Transactions A transaction is a basic unit of social interaction. The heart of transactional analysis is the study and diagramming of the exchanges between two persons. Thus where a verbal or non verbal stimulus from one person is being responded by another person a transaction occurs. Transactional analysis can help us to determine which ego state is most heavily influencing our behaviour and the behaviour of the other people with whom we interact.
Introduction Conflict happens with everyone. Most people see it as negative, but conflict can have a positive outcome. This paper will explain a conflict situation that happened in my life and how I reacted to it at that moment. It will then also explain what could have happened if a different approach was used, maybe it could have turned out better not only for me, but for all the parties involved. Personal conflict I faced many conflict situations in my life where I had no idea how to deal with it or what I could do to make things better.
Attachment theory and romantic relationship The most salient person variable with regards to interpersonal relationships is the contact of attachment style, which is theoretically grounded in Bowlby's attachment theory. Attachment theory posits that when an infant is separated from the primary caregiver or attachment figure (usually the mother). A set of behaviors will ensue which serve the function of regaining proximity to the caregiver. This is known as the separation protest behavioral system (Bowlby, 1973). Separation protest is unique to attachment relationships.
Attachment allows the children to have a secure base which is essential to explore, learn and uses the primary caregiver as a source of comfort (Benoit 2004).The way different children behave enables the parents to response in many different ways which are influenced by their attachment pattern (Rees 2007). Bowlby believed that an infant attachment behaviours are natural and will be activated by any condition which may threaten their proximity such as separation. The attachment relationship between the child and the caregiver prepares them for future relationships (Gantt et al 1995). Bowlby (1990) developed the attachment theory as a way of understanding how specific infants bond to others, he noticed infants engaging in certain behaviours such as smiling which led to a close and secure bond and relationship with their caregiver which portrayed a secure attachment towards their mother. Secure attachment is defined as when the infant feels secure and can freely express their emotions which will be comforting from their caregiver.
The central theme of attachment theory is that mothers who are available and responsive to their infant 's needs establish a sense of security in their children. The infant knows that the caregiver is dependable, which creates a secure base for the child to then explore the world. Bowlby was very much influenced by ethological theory in general, but especially by Lorenz’s (1935) study of imprinting. Lorenz showed that attachment was innate (in young ducklings) and therefore has a survival value. Bowlby believed that attachment behaviors are instinctive and will be activated by any conditions that
Transactional Analysis was developed by a psychiatrist named Eric Berne. Dr. Berne defined transactional analysis, or known as "TA", as the method for studying individual's relationships and interactions. Psychotherapists were able to read about Berne’s theories and test them out in their own practices.1 Dr. Berne took inspiration from Sigmund Freud's theories of personality, combining them with his own observations of human interaction this led to the development of transactional analysis . Dr. Berne learned that there exist three distinct ego states in all people - the Parent ego state, Adult ego state, and Child ego state. People change from one state to another and can be easily noticed by the manner of their appearances, words, gestures
A large proportion of the research supports the importance of attachment in early childhood and the security formed can result in certain social and behaviour characteristics. As a child develops its independence the attachment behaviour become less prominate leading to a social mature relationship. Ainsworth (1989) suggest that it never disappears and that adolescences and young adult still rely on their parent in these roles. Bowlby (1979) it is a mistake to assume as some psychoanalysts do, that the presence of attachment behaviour in adult life is pathological, regressive or reflects ‘fixation’. To Bowlby this is a biological based behaviour and a considered choice.
The transactional theory of Eric Berne attempts to let us understand how an individual possesses a multi-faceted personality that can be observed through verbal and non-verbal communication. As mentioned earlier, an individual interacts with another
Communication refers to the process through which individuals or groups of people share an understanding of a particular topic. Communication entails the process of developing meaning of a particular context or topic by receiving and sending non-verbal or verbal signs and symbols. The verbal and non-verbal elements are influenced by various contexts such as the language and type of meaning being generated. The two contexts of communication that promote sharing of information in the society include interpersonal and mass communication. The contexts where these aspects of communications are utilized differ in terms of the topic of discussion and the target audience of the message.