Without being abused or punished, they are already learning the basic skills related to toilet training. Even before they are capable of walking, they are ready enough in training, using the toilet. In the United States, the situation is entirely different wherein children wear diapers for two, three or four years. Based on a recent study, Afro-American parents are believed to have been training their children around eighteen months. On the other hand, Caucasian-American parents are training their children after twenty-five months.
Parents can approach kids with toilet training with patience and in a more positive way. If they didn’t overcome this stage then they won’t develop a sense of accomplishment and independence. Phallic Stage (3 - 6 yrs) In this stage the children main focus is in the genitals and masturbation. Children become aware of the sex differences and due to this identification they face mixed emotion. In this stage they have some misunderstanding regarding their parents.
In which manner do I have to behave? What have I become? There are a lot of bodily changes seen in an adolescent. The adolescent tries to search for a new role and identity. The way in which an individual tends to develop sense of identity will depend upon how successfully he is able to resolve crisis related to previous stage.
Each phase develops on a basis of psychosocial crisis, such as intimacy versus isolation, or initiative versus guilt. Through each crisis, a basic virtue is established, such as hope. The first psychosocial phase of development occurs from the moment of birth to the age of about one and a half years. During this phase, infants are faced with the crisis of trust versus mistrust; infants are trying to determine whether the world is safe or if it should be feared, and the goal is to establish the virtue of hope in the infant. Given consistent and dependable care, infants will begin to gain a sense of trust in their caretaker.
Adulthood and aging may be viewed as a series of transitions defined by such events.” Lifespan psychology is the study that examines the behavioural patterns and trends that occur through a person’s life, specifically examining growth, change and stability, and how these aspects change a person throughout the course of their life. “Most contemporary approaches in developmental psychology-including the lifespan perspective-examine the entire life-span” (Watts, Cockcroft, & Duncan, 2009). In the past, psychologists had the idea that human development was all based on nature versus nurture. “Over the past century there have been constant debates about the relative influence of “nature” or “nurture” in producing outcomes for individual lives” (Drewery, 2011). This meant that people were either shaped by their environment (nurture) or shaped by their biology (nature).
Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Developmental Theory Erik Erikson (1950, 1963) proposed a psychoanalytic theory of psychosocial development comprising eight stages from infancy to adulthood. During each stage, the person experiences a psychosocial crisis which could have a positive or negative outcome for personality development. Erikson 's ideas were greatly influenced by Freud, going along with Freud’s (1923) theory regarding the structure and topography of personality. However, whereas Freud was an id psychologist, Erikson was an ego psychologist. He emphasized the role of culture and society and the conflicts that can take place within the ego itself, whereas Freud emphasized the conflict between the id and the superego.
one’s personality can be expected to change with future experiences. A lot has been covered about the personality development under the trait theories, psychoanalysis, and the behavioral theory. The trait theories emphasize how each person is a collection of constant traits, abilities, or responses. Thus different people may respond differently in the same situation because of different traits. Yet Bandura and those endorsing a social-learning analysis are saying that the behavior of each of us in the same situation may differ because of differing past experiences in similar
In recent decades, youth studies became emerging issues among the academician, policymakers, but still in the process of developing an appropriate theory on youth deviance, social problems, sub-culture, the generation gap and social construction. The following are some of the theories relating to young people: Theory of Psychosocial development Erik Erikson’s theory of psychological development was influenced by Sigmund Freud (Erikson, 1968). Erikson too believed that personality develops in a series of stages. This theory describes the impact of social experiences across the whole lifespan. Erikson had developed eight stages of psychosocial development such as infancy (birth to 18 months), toddler (18 months to 3 years), preschooler (3 to 5 years), school age child (6 – 12 years), adolescent 13 – 19 years), young adult (20 – 39 years), middle-aged adult (40 – 55 years), late adult (55 – 65 to death).
Psychosocial Theory of Erik Erikson Erikson completed the psychoanalytic theory where he explained the life development of a person from infancy up to adulthood. The stages are grounded on specific developmental tasks at a given age (American Chemical Journal, 2013.). This means that each stage is fixed and has specific time models. Erikson also pointed out the effect of social interaction, environment and the significant events on one’s self-identity and in the society. The unique in psychosocial theory is what Erikson called crisis which is the challenging point into one’s individuality.
The most fundamental stage of life that reflects the baby’s inner perception of trustworthiness. Failure to develop trust will result in feeling of fear. b) Autonomy vs shame – Developed during early childhood. Children beginning to to learn independence in doing basic task with the facilitation of parents. Discouragement will lead to doubt in their own