Theories, Key Concepts, Principles, and Assumptions Two theories that will be discussed in this paper is Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development and John Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment. Erikson’s theory is considered psychosocial, emphasizing the importance of social and cultural factors within a lifespan, from infancy to later adulthood. Erikson’s theory is broken down into eight consecutive age-defined stages. During each stage, a person experiences a psychosocial crisis that contributes to their personality development. Erikson was highly influenced by Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytical Theory of Development.
Recognizing that age discrimination exists both advertently and inadvertently in personal and institutional form, and that economic and psychological factors play a major part in ageism as well, the International Longevity Center (ILC) has set out to examine the problem of age prejudice, also known as ageism (Butler, 2009). The American Psychological Association suggests that ageism is a serious issue that should be treated the same as sex, race, and disability-based discrimination. They suggest that raising public awareness about the issues ageism creates can help. As the population of older adults
Examples of attachment include touching parent’s face. Life-span development theory The Erikson’s life-span development theory consists of eight stages, whereby each stage consists of a developmental task with a crisis confrontation. When individuals emerge from crisis, he gains psychological strengths (Santrock, 2012). The first psychosocial stage, Trust versus mistrust is the most fundamental stage which
"There is in every child at every stage a new miracle of vigorous unfolding." (Erik Erikson) Contrary to the outdated psychological models which promoted early childhood as the singular period of growth and change in an individual the influential developmental psychologist Eric Erikson’s "miracle" of "vigorous unfolding" quote provides a metaphor that can be understood as the potential for continued alteration of personality over a life time, however even from a life time development perspective childhood is a critically important phase of human life. In this essay I will analyse the 9 month old baby girl featured in the film “3 men and a baby” via the looking glass of developmental theory. Concepts discussed will include Piaget’s cognitive
The life span of an individual goes through developmental stages in life, from conception to death. The majority of the stages we pass are biological, socio-economical and psychological birth rights. This essay will focus on the two stages, drawn from the eight stages of Erikson Theory, namely: Trust vs Mistrust and Generativity vs Stagnation. The essay will further discuss authoritative parenting and attachment styles. The eight stages which a healthy person should undergo from infancy to late adulthood, are built on the success of mastering the previous stage.
The ego and superego components of self can be enhanced by helping those who had active self-enhance it through the changing of behaviors/lifestyles. Erikson’s psychosocial developmental theory was the expansion of Freud’s concept of ego. The eight stages of development emphasize the transition an individual goes through from infancy to late adolescent hood. Each step has its accomplishment to achieve, and failure to meet up with these achievements affects the next stage. The developmental theory is not only utilized in psychiatric nursing but in different fields of nursing, including holistic nursing practice (McEwen & Wills, 2014; Reed, 1998).
Later on Freud began focusing on the early development of children and how during each age, the child focuses his attention to a specific body part. He proposed that childhood development goes through stages and if a child does not fufill and leave one stage they become fixated to it. Freud was convinced that our personalities form in our first few years as we pass through a series of psychosexual stages. Here comes the unconsious part and the ID that seeks pleasure from our sensitive areas. First is the oral stage that starts from birth where libido is centred in baby's mouth through breastfeeding and putting all sorts of things in his mouth.
On the other hand, Erikson believes that our behaviours are motivated by our sense of competency. We gather a sense of competency through social interactions which are depicted through each of Erikson’s eight psychosocial stages. The crisis in each stage needs to be mastered in order to develop our personality that can result in acquiring an ego quality such as hope or will (Dunkel & Sefcek, 2009). As Erikson explained, failure to master a stage can affect the personality development in the subsequent stages, implying the importance mastery of each crisis. The motivation for mastery at each stage is our desire for a sense of competency (Westermeyer, 2004), hence it is also the motivator for our behaviour.
Erikson (1902-1994) and J. Bowlby (1909-1991), developed the initial idea maintained by Freud, that our earliest relationships affect all those that come later in life. Erikson emphasised the impact of history and culture on the development of the adolescent, later developing ego psychology. John Bowlby’s attachment theory states that our attachments and relationships help us to maintain our emotional wellbeing; the attachments that we make to people in the early stages of our development has an impact on how we view ourselves and how we develop relationships throughout our lives. Wave 3 nurture groups and SEAL groups, as recommended by the government Targeted Mental Health in Schools project (TaMHS, 2008), are firmly based on the premise that early relationships are crucial to all that follows. Personal experiences with adopted children, those of close colleagues, family members and students, can, in my opinion, bear out Bowlby’s underlying premise of attachment theory.
Some how Erikson's thoughts also goes with Sigmund Freud's thoughts. Because both Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages. Erikson's Theory describes the impact of social experience across one's whole lifespan. Erikson developed eight psychological stages that human beings encounter throughout their life. The main element behind his theory is identity of ones ego.