Erik Erikson based on Freud's thoughts and augmented his hypothesis by focusing on the psycho social parts of advancement past early adolescence. His hypothesis of improvement holds that psycho sexual development and psycho social development happen together, and that at each phase of life we confront the assignment of building up harmony amongst ourselves and our social world. He depicts advancement as far as the whole life expectancy, separated by particular emergencies to be settled. As indicated by Erikson, an emergency is equal to a defining moment in life when we can possibly push ahead or to relapse. At these defining moments, we can either resolve our contentions or neglect to ace the formative errand. To
The humanistic perspective of personality was theorised by Abraham Maslow who created the Hierarchy of Needs to represent two areas of needs an individual must achieve in order to reach self-actualisation. The two groups are divided by their importance; first is our deficiency needs, separated into four lower levels which are physiological, safety and security, belonging and love, and our esteem needs. The growth needs can only be reached once we have achieved all of our deficiency needs and we have not reverted back a step in our search for self-actualisation. The growth needs Maslow stated are understanding, aesthetic, self-actualisation, transcendence. Carl Rogers, another psychological theorist, originally stated that achievement of self-actualisation
Two theories that will be discussed in this paper is Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development and John Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment. Erikson’s theory is considered psychosocial, emphasizing the importance of social and cultural factors within a lifespan, from infancy to later adulthood. Erikson’s theory is broken down into eight consecutive age-defined stages. During each stage, a person experiences a psychosocial crisis that contributes to their personality development. Erikson was highly influenced by Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytical Theory of Development. Although, at first Freud was limited to childhood based on the phallic stage, Erikson focused on developing a lifespan theory. The eight stages are as followed:
Humanistic psychologist Abraham Maslow put forward his theory of the hierarchy of needs through the shape of a pyramid. He suggested that each step in this pyramid became of importance when the needs of an individual are not met. To progress upwards in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs one has to meet each level to a satisfactory standard and when this is happens he claims that a person has reached a point of self-actualisation. All the necessities he mentioned had to be met before this could be realised however. He believed that everyone was capable of attaining self-actualisation but unfortunate life experiences do disrupt a person’s progress and they can go up and down the pyramid when these unlucky moments present themselves in life (ClassNotes, 2014).
After an examination of Erik Erikson and Daniel Levinson’s theories at first sight not much is alike, since the stages both differ, but digging deeper in Erikson's and Levinson’s theories have similar ideas in social development; after all, these two studies differ in the outcome. Erik erikson's theories have a greater underlining on child-adolescent development, he believes that early development of a child is the foundation and is the greatest impact on a person's identity and personality later on in life. Erikson presents the stages from childhood to adulthood, but in his theory the only significant development is during childhood, which is the problem, since an individual goes through life experiences throughout life they may have a great impact as an adult too. On the other hand Daniel Levinson’s theory signifies changes throughout all of life's experiences, from childhood to adulthood and continuing. Levinson’s theory believes that we adapt ad we let go of certain things as we move on in life and move from one stage to another.
He proposed that this evolution involves the constant interaction between heredity and environmental influences (Kindersley, 2012). Erikson postulated that people face eight key crises or conflicts over the course of their lives. He believed each conflict to arise at a distinct time determined by a combination of biological maturation and social demands experienced by developing people at certain stages of life. According to Erikson, each crisis needs to be successfully resolved to prepare for satisfactory resolution of the subsequent life crisis (Shaffer,
In analyzing the short story “Gryphon” using psychoanalytic approach, this paper focus first on the biography of the author to see how this literary work became a manifestation of the authors own neuroses. One of the greatest milestones in the life of Charles Baxter was being a public teacher. In the year 1969, he taught fourth grade for a year in Pinconning, Michigan. According to Baxter, it was kind of an exotic experience for him but he also came to feel that it was one of the most important things that happened to his life. He was enraged in war during that time and he was trying not to bring the war into the classroom but sometimes he failed. Once, unprepared for class, he winged it, making up facts on the spot like making stories about ancient Egypt and realizing that his “facts” are being fanciful- this proves that this episode of his life inspired the short story “gryphon”, in which a substitute teacher tells her fourth graders some eccentric ideas like angels lives in the clouds over Venus and sometimes visit Earth to attend concerts. How Charles Baxter as a fourth-grade
The stages help me to solidify in my mind what might be going on in a person’s life at a given time. His stages fit with what I imagine each age group is grappling with psychologically at each stage. The two theories are alike in that they attempt to explain human behavior, but they approach it from 2 different schools of thinking. The two theories are like in that they both have a social context to them. I believe that both are valid, and both can help to explain why we do what we do. Erikson’s theory has definite stages that need to be positively resolved and Bandura simply says that we are what is around us basically. We act according to the framework of our lives. We see things through the filter of our everyday lives. I feel that Erikson’s stages explain more about what we need to achieve in life to be fulfilled during certain ages of our lives. This seems like a more detailed approach and it feels good to me to see each stage. Of course, everybody does not go through these stages sequentially, but it is a good idea of what to look for. Bandura explains development in a more holistic way encompassing all ages and situations without giving us detailed information of what may be happening at any given time. Erikson breaks it down into manageable time frames and assigns tasks to them. I believe that inside
The theory dictates that people must reach each level of need to go to the next one. The first level is physiological needs, or the basic needs of survival such as, food, water, air, and shelter. The second level is safety and security of several forms. So, theoretically humans would need food and water before they could feel any level of security. Additionally, the third level is the feeling of belongingness and love that humans desire. Those who are missing this level could fall victim to several dangerous behaviors. Next, the fourth level focuses on esteem and having other people’s respect. Finally, the last level is self-actualization (Taormina & Gao 156). Self-actualization refers to fulfilling ones goals and improving oneself to reach a point of happiness (Textbook 44). Thus, the main ideas of Maslow’s theory are commonly placed into a pyramid to represent the reaching of each
Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is very important. There are some reasons of it. The first reason is because learning is existencial issue for an individual. Human beings are leaning to learn since the day of creation. Many tryings have been tried to learn learning. There are also some other theories of learning but Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development is marvelous. It has eight stages and each stage has its own period and importance.
Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development has 8 stages. Same like Freud Erikson also believed that crisis happen at each stage. According to Erikson these changes happen due to the philosophical needs of an individual struggle with the needs of the society. Therefore he named the stages as psychosocial crises. Furthermore he has mentioned in his theory, the result of completing each stage successfully, also the result of failure to complete a stage successfully. Erikson’s developmental stages are from infancy to maturity. The eight stages of Erikson’s developmental theories are:
One of the similarities between the two is that the theories are founded based on the exploitation of personal experiences and the personal development of Freud and Maslow. According to the history of the psychology, it can be seen clearly that both Freud and Maslow found and explained their theories mainly based on their personal childhood experiences and also their personal experiences throughout their life without any conducting any scientific experiment, which caused the theories cannot be tested out by replicating any scientific experiment or research.
Safety needs influence us because if we do not feel safe we may be constantly scared. Safety needs include being safe in our work environment and at home. The third level is belonging needs, which is being with others, being accepted, and belonging. Belonging needs influence us in relationships, are we being accepted and or loved by the other individual? The forth level is esteem needs, which is achieving, being competent, gaining approval and recognition. Esteem needs influence us because we might not be able to achieve what we want, might not have the necessary skill or might not be able to recognize. We also might have too low or too high self-esteem. The fifth level is self-actualization needs, which is finding self-fulfillment and realizing your potential. Self-actualization needs influence us because we might underestimate ourselves and not realize our full
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is displayed as a pyramid and is built on a foundation of basic needs that must not only be met but satisfied before higher levels of the needs are met. On the bottom of the pyramid are physiological needs and these are required to sustain life such as breathing, water, food and shelter to mention a few. Once these are met, people can move onto the next level of need which is safety. Safety needs can be financial, medical, safe environment and job security.
In this assignment, I will be focusing on Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development. There are eight stages in which only the fifth stage”identity versus role confusion” will be discussed. Aspects such as identity crises, exploration of autonomy whilst developing a sense of self, factors that may contribute to identity formation as well as the successful/unsuccessful resolution of this particular stage will be discussed thoroughly. James Marcia’s identity statuses will be highlighted. This essay will then progress into a case study based on Anna Monroe in connection to the difficulties she faced namely gender, sexuality, peer pressure, suicide and the experimentation with different identities she encountered.