Erikson's Autonomy Versus Shame And Doubt

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Erikson’s second stage of development is called “Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt”, where Freud describes it as the “Anal Stage”. Erikson’s second stage occurs between the ages of one to three and compares it with how well a caregiver permits a child to exercise her or his will, and in providing the freedom in order for the child to make choices regarding his or her own life (Boeree, 2006). In stage two, Erikson demonstrated how a child is challenging the boundaries, in order for them to see the effect that it can have on their life (Boeree, 2006). This is the time where the parents or caregivers have to walk a tightrope when it comes to granting the child with enough space in order for them to make decisions and to investigate on their own. If the parents are over protective and denies the child their own will, doubt and shame may develop causing nervousness and problems when it comes to initiating actions (Boeree, 2006). Erikson maintains that attaining a positive balance throughout this stage, the child reaches "autonomy" in conjunction with the "basic virtue and strength" of possessing “self-control and willpower " (Boeree, 2006).When the opposite occurs (negative end of the scale) compulsion can be viewed as the maladaptation, and if the scale tips to the extreme positive scale it would be Impulsivity (Boeree, 2006). One can say that Ericson 's second stage is the equivalent of Freud 's "Anal stage". Within Freud’s theory, the anus can be viewed as the erogenous zone

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