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Erikson's Psychosocial Development

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Introduction
In this assignment, I will be focusing on Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development. There are eight stages in which only the fifth stage ”identity versus role confusion” will be discussed. Aspects such as identity crises, exploration of autonomy whilst developing a sense of self, factors that may contribute to identity formation as well as the successful/unsuccessful resolution of this particular stage will be discussed thoroughly. James Marcia’s identity statuses will be highlighted. This essay will then progress into a case study based on Anna Monroe in connection to the difficulties she faced namely gender, sexuality, peer pressure, suicide and the experimentation with different identities she encountered.
Erikson’s fifth
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Adolescence refers to the transition period experienced by children that occur between childhood and adulthood (Shefer, 2011). Identity is first confronted in adolescence between the ages 12 – 19 years old, because of physical and hormonal changes in the body. The introduction of formal operations in cognitive development and societal expectation that this contributes to an individual’s identity to be explored and established (McAdams, 2009), this also leads to the discovery of one’s identity, however the (internal and external) forces that promote identity development, usually creates a sense of tension within/ for the individual. The basic task in Erikson’s terms is, “fidelity or truthfulness and consistency to one’s core self or faith in one’s ideology”. In a nutshell: "Who am I and where am I going?" (Fleming, 2004:…show more content…
Cognitive development refers to the age-related changes that occur in mental activities such as paying attention, learning, thinking and recollecting (Cole & Cole, 2001). Cognitive abilities take from birth to young adulthood and then are maintained or decreased as a result of age, depending on specific abilities (Craik and Bialystok, 2006). Adolescents who are more advanced in the development of abstract reasoning and information-processing skills seem to be more likely to reach James Marcia’s status of identity achievement. Therefore, parenting plays an essential role. Strong parent-child attachment bonds not only provide adolescents with support, but also with a secure base of freedom to explore. This will create opportunities to move confidently in the wider world and voice one’s opinions, which could enhance the development of the moratorium and identity achievement statuses. Peer interactions also provides suppose and role models in identity development, as well as opportunities to explore careers. (
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