Each phase develops on a basis of psychosocial crisis, such as intimacy versus isolation, or initiative versus guilt. Through each crisis, a basic virtue is established, such as hope. The first psychosocial phase of development occurs from the moment of birth to the age of about one and a half years. During this phase, infants are faced with the crisis of trust versus mistrust; infants are trying to determine whether the world is safe or if it should be feared, and the goal is to establish the virtue of hope in the infant. Given consistent and dependable care, infants will begin to gain a sense of trust in their caretaker.
Development Theory Erik Erikson postulated eight psychosocial stages, an innovation to the five stages development of Dr. Sigmund Freud. Each of the psychosocial stages is marked by a psychosocial crisis that needs to be resolved so that the individual can move on. In these stages especially during the initiative versus guilt stage, Erikson believed that children begin to have the ability to control themselves and now learn to have some influence over others. This stage is the play age of children. Thus, crisis unresolved during this stage will lead children to become compulsively moralistic or overly inhibited (Apruebo, 2008).
The two qualities of adolescence stage are identity and role confusion. If the stage is managed well, the child is able to achieve a strong sense of self and feeling of independence and control. Otherwise, the child will be confused about self and will also have difficulties achieving a balance in the later stages. Also, the formation of identity results in the psychosocial strength of faithfulness in relationship (Dunkel & Sefcek, 2007). Collins & Bayless (2013) did a study on the influence of caregiving from parents on the development of adolescence.
Infant who gets fed when he is hungry and comforted when he needs comforting will develop trust but some mistrust is necessary to learn to discriminate between honest and dishonest (Sharkey, 1997). Parents that are not responsible and inconsiderate will resulting in their baby to beget the feeling of fear, mistrust and heightened insecurities. At the age of 1 to 3 years, the child will go through the “Autonomy vs Shame” stage. In this stage, children will develop their physical ability and different skill such as crawling, walking and playing with toys. It is important that the parents
Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Developmental Theory Erik Erikson (1950, 1963) proposed a psychoanalytic theory of psychosocial development comprising eight stages from infancy to adulthood. During each stage, the person experiences a psychosocial crisis which could have a positive or negative outcome for personality development. Erikson 's ideas were greatly influenced by Freud, going along with Freud’s (1923) theory regarding the structure and topography of personality. However, whereas Freud was an id psychologist, Erikson was an ego psychologist. He emphasized the role of culture and society and the conflicts that can take place within the ego itself, whereas Freud emphasized the conflict between the id and the superego.
The attachment theory is most commonly observed in the parent- child scenario, as it is in Bowlby’s study which regarded the existence of the attachment as a child needing some sort of person to give them a security and assurance. It is explained that with lack thereof, the individual would find it difficult to explore horizons because there is that part of their development, needed to be fulfilled with such assurance, that wasn’t met during childhood, thus such insecurities may surface. Further, it is pointed out that the relationship established between the parent and the child has an impact in the child’s behavioral and emotional self-regulation. It relies heavily on the level in which the parents are able to meet the child’s needs for someone to stand as a stronghold of confidence and to provide them the feeling of safety. Attachment theory also explains levels in a child’s ability to place recall or differentiate
Erickson developed the first true life-span theory of human development which breaks down the processes of development into 8 stages. Erickson was an artist and teacher that was influenced by Freud. His attention then became entirely focused on children and the development of them. Ericksons psychosocial theory has had an impact on the developmental process because it covers the development on the whole life-span. According to Erickson (1950) psychological development results from the interaction between maturational processes or biological needs and the societal demands and social forces encountered in everyday life.
Introduction. Children are biologically designed to form a secure attachment. Smyke and Potter (2011) describe a secure attachment as when a child feels accepted and valued by their caregiver, which is a process of the caregiver providing life-long comfort, support and protection for the child. When a child experiences maltreatment and social isolation from a caregiver the child develops a sense of danger which causes an "overwhelming sense of helpless, horror and terror" (Smyke and Potter, 2011). Examples of maltreatment may include a child living in institutional care or frequent placements while in the care of child and family services or when a child is left with random caregivers or the child is brought to a drug house by the parent who
As the infant develops more security, the proximity of caregiver will be a safe zone for him/her to explore around them. The key behind this theory is that the early bond that develops between caregiver and child influences expectations about how the world works and how people are supposed to behave and interact. They further emphasized that mental representations that the infants form are
A large proportion of the research supports the importance of attachment in early childhood and the security formed can result in certain social and behaviour characteristics. As a child develops its independence the attachment behaviour become less prominate leading to a social mature relationship. Ainsworth (1989) suggest that it never disappears and that adolescences and young adult still rely on their parent in these roles. Bowlby (1979) it is a mistake to assume as some psychoanalysts do, that the presence of attachment behaviour in adult life is pathological, regressive or reflects ‘fixation’. To Bowlby this is a biological based behaviour and a considered choice.