Introduction In this assignment, I will be focusing on Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development. There are eight stages in which only the fifth stage”identity versus role confusion” will be discussed. Aspects such as identity crises, exploration of autonomy whilst developing a sense of self, factors that may contribute to identity formation as well as the successful/unsuccessful resolution of this particular stage will be discussed thoroughly. James Marcia’s identity statuses will be highlighted. This essay will then progress into a case study based on Anna Monroe in connection to the difficulties she faced namely gender, sexuality, peer pressure, suicide and the experimentation with different identities she encountered. Erikson’s fifth …show more content…
Due to challenges as well as issues confronted by adolescents they may have identity confusion which is comprised of identity foreclosure, negative identity and diffusion. Identity foreclosure alludes to the identity crisis being resolved by making a series of premature decisions about one’s identity, based on other’s expectations of what and who one should be. Negative identity alludes to adolescents who form an identity contrary to the cultural values and expectations and diffusion refers to a kind of apathy in which the youth lacks any kind of passion or commitment (Louw&Louw, 2007). However, this challenge could be overcome by positive role identity or identity achievement which is “the sense of really knowing who one is and in general, where one is headed in life” (Fleming, 2004: 9).Erikson’s theory states that, throughout life, individuals go through various stages during which one will meet ever changing psychosocial challenges. The completion of the work of each stage which Erikson alludes to as a crisis that prepares one to move on to the following stage. According to this theory, if individuals do not resolve a crisis during any of these stages one will continue to create events throughout life which will recreate a crisis until one have done the psychosocial work necessary to resolve a specific crisis, or not (Erikson, …show more content…
This is the time period in which experimentation takes place (Louw&Louw, 2007). In order to develop one’s own identity; adolescents would require to master five tasks. They would need to form a continuous, integrated, unified image of the self, referred to by Erikson as ego-synthesis. Adolescents would need to form a socio-cultural identity, which means that the adolescent’s identity must include the value orientations of his or her culture. A gender role identity must be firmly established through which, adolescents must accept their identities as either male or female. A career identity must be formed, meaning the adolescent needs to be realistic in choosing a career path. A personal value system must be developed, meaning that adolescents must rethink certain values so that they are able to form their own basic philosophy (Louw&Louw,
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Many teenagers often ask themselves who they are and what they believe. As they search for an answer, they slowly begin to build their identity. The principles that underlie the universe of obligation allows adolescents to continue to find their identity. Because of this, impressions or previous stereotypes conceived then usually stays with them until adulthood. Elie Wiesel’s Night and Helen Fein’s Universe of Obligation helps allows teens to understand the world around them.
Many people, including students, are losing their true selves in society. Instead, human beings are united in their shared experiences, many of which include struggles for survival. Society’s contemporary struggles, however, are for something else, which often include the search for identity. Establishing identity is a universal struggle that all humans experience. For most teenagers, in particular, as they start to search for their adult selves, there is no worse time in their lives than when they don't know who they truly are.
The development perspectives he uses are Erikson’s personality theory. Throughout his professional career, he noticed how the adolescent years are expanding from 12 years old to 30 years old. In addition to counseling young adults who are still preforming adolescent behaviors, Hoober finds himself looking back at Erikson’s Identity vs. Role Confusion stage. This is where an individual between the ages 12 and 20 are moving towards adulthood and making choices, goals, and vocations that will influence their adulthood (p.
A person’s identity is an amalgamation of characteristics that set them apart from others. Everyone is truly unique because no two people possess the same exact beliefs and qualities as another person. Though a person may have grown up in a specific culture, outside factors can contribute to the forming of an individual’s identity which causes a person to diverge from what they knew themselves to be growing up. Andrew Solomon, author of “Son”, puts forth the idea of vertical and horizontal identities. Vertical identity comes from the passing down of expectations and culture from family while horizontal identity comes from outside forces.
A person’s self identity is the collection of beliefs and concepts they have about themselves. Physical, psychosocial, and social aspects of self identity are among its parts because these aspects can be modified by a person’s attitude, behaviors, and ideas that can’t be summed up in the concepts of self identity. Readers should know that by analyzing a novel story by Noah Trevor, “Born a Crime’, stories of authors, and my life experiences shows that finding your identity is about finding out what makes you, you. The first identity that has a connection to Trevor in the novel “Born a Crime” by Noah Trevor, the article “Teen of a Mixed Race” by Adiah Silar, and my first life experience is ethnic and identity.
A person who struggles with knowing who they are or what they want to do with themselves is experiencing something called identity confusion (“Identity”). In “Death of a Salesman”, it is clear that Willy Loman never was able to discover himself, sparking identity confusion, leaving him in a constant state of confusion and despair. The issues Willy experienced throughout his troublesome life may have been sparked through past childhood experiences, like the absence of a father figure. The development of one’s identity starts when an individual is able to look up to their role models and be provided with numerous options to explore in order to discover who they are and what they can become (“Identity”). Starting from early childhood, identities are being developed and children slowly are starting to be given the opportunity to discover themselves.
This can be done through a steady set of norms and values, which ultimately influence your identity formation (Klimstra, 2012). Furthermore, Sigelman and Rider (2015), suggest that to achieve a sense of identity, the adolescent needs to incorporate multiple perceptions
Erikson’s developmental stages consist of the age during the stages, and what the person goes through during that stage. Erikson puts social and cultural aspects into Freud's biological and sexual theory. Each stage has its conflict and the person must find the balance in between the two
The adolescence stage of development is a critical transition period in a child’s life because this is the stage at which the child struggles to discover their identity, as they evolve into adults. Throughout this transition, the child experiences different physical, cognitive, and social changes that cause the child to feel the need to reconsider their identity. Psychologist Eric Erikson theorizes that, “adolescents experiment with different roles while trying to integrate identities from previous stages”. This theory created by Erikson is the fifth ego crisis referred to as “identity vs. role confusion”. Identity vs. role confusion demonstrations the adolescent’s conflict between social role expectations, the need to fit in, and the ability
Erikson believed that personality is developed throughout the lifespan, and not restricted to any age. Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is based on the epigenetic principle, which states that the development involves a series of predetermined stages (Dunkel & Sefcek, 2007). The early stages are important as it influences the outcomes of later stages (Dunkel & Sefcek, 2007). Once the qualities of each stage are established, they will remain in the personality throughout the lifespan. Ego identity is the central element of Erikson’s theory (Erikson, 1968, as cited in Carver & Scheier, 2007).
Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development Many researchers have tried to revise after Freud 's psychoanalysis, to show the value associated with the process and I have to follow their development (Kail, Cavanaugh, 2004). The most prominent of the so-called ego psychology was Erik Erikson. As with other postfreydistov for Erickson the greatest importance was the self and its adaptive capacity in connection with the problem of the individual. However, this does not mean that he neglected his theory of biological or social factors (Kail, Cavanaugh, 2004).
Six-step model: Step 1. Firstly, the clients’ point of view needs to be understood. In this session it is important to show core listening skills of empathy, genuineness and acceptance. A crisis will be caused by an event - an initial, identifiable occurrence in the life of the individual. The scale of such events can vary enormously, from large-scale natural disasters and wars to situations that can appear less dramatic (e.g., incidences of bullying in a school, a marriage, transition from college to a job).
It is argued that the period of adolescence is one of the most difficult periods an individual can experience (Yablonska, 2013). Adolescence can best be described as a period in time were individuals begin to find themselves and or develop a sense of identity (Sigelman & Rider, 2015). Put forward, this paper will discuss James Marcia theory of identity formation among adolescents. Additionally, this paper will draw relevant evidence of identity development with reference to the identity formation theory presented by Marcia from a thirteen year old teenage girl named Tracy. The experiences of Tracy was observed from a movie called “Thirteen” (2003) which will be used to explain and describe identity development among teenagers.
Identity development during adolescence Adolescence is a developmental transition between childhood and adulthood and also a period of prominent change for teenagers when physical changes are happening at an accelerated rate. Adolescence is not just marked by physical changes but also cognitive, social, emotional and interpersonal changes as well. The development of a strong and stable sense of self known as identity development is widely considered to be one of the crucial tasks of adolescence. Identity development of an adolescent is influenced by external factors, such as their environment, culture, religion, school and the media.