Erikson's Theory Of Identity Development

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Although Erikson 's theory of identity development is widely cited, there are several social psychological theories providing vital knowledge about identity and its development. The attachment theories emphasize the value of the trust and security that a child learns from his/her mother in infancy. Social learning theories expand the constructs of self concept and self worth as the basis of self description in late childhood. Cognitive development theory describes the age-related processes leading to a child 's limitation before adolescence and competence during adolescence for establishing identity. The foci of these theories are different, reflecting an array of approaches to the issue but all of them present the facets fundamental to human…show more content…
The self concept is the basic representation in children 's minds of who they are and what they are like. Social learning theorists emphasize that the self concept is built upon the identification with role models, an assessment of self worth, and a preferred pattern in relating to the external world (Carver and Scheier, 1992). Children learn to interact through modelling and imitation of others, particularly role models. Anyone may be a role model for the child in early childhood whom the child admires. The influence of a role model can affect individuals’ personality, ambitions or interest. Self-worth is based on children 's self-assessment of their capabilities in comparison to others. Positive assessment suggests that it is worth to do because the individual is better in that activity than others. Negative assessment signs if there is a skill needed to develop. Becoming too many negative assessments leads the individual to a negative self-assessment and may result in an overall feeling of inadequacy (Cole and Cole, 2006). During adolescence it is the peer group and selected entertainment heroes who become increasingly important as models, especially if communication between parents and adolescents break down. The adolescent peer group is particularly influential as a model in the use of verbal expressions, hair style, clothing, food, music and entertainment preferences, as well as…show more content…
He thought that our thoughts, actions and everyday behaviour are caused by unconscious motives and conflicts. Freud’s theory divided human personality into three parts: the Id, the Ego and the Superego. Id (pleasure principle functioning) is the storage unit for all psychic energy, the primitive, instinctive component of personality. It is the raw, unorganized, inborn part of our personality and represents the primary drives of hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses. This part always wants immediate gratification of urges, the goal is to maximize satisfaction and reduce tension. Ego (reality principle functioning) is the mediator between the Id and the real world, the decision-making component of personality. This part of personality is rational, reasonable and seeks to delay gratification of urges to satisfy society’s norms. Superego (morality principle functioning) is the moral component related to internalized social standards about right and wrong. Superego communicates values, standards and behaviours that are expected, it is the individuals’ conscience. Behaviour is the outcome of series of internal conflicts among Id, Ego and Superego. Id wants immediate gratification, but norms of society (Superego) dictate otherwise and the ego tries to equilibrate between them. Conflicting personality structures lead to anxiety and/or

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