It happens that one may hear words that sound very similar such as errors and mistakes. However, in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) and applied linguistics, they refer to different notions. The following definitions will demonstrate the concept of error and how it differs from mistakes. Errors signify an imperfect or incomplete learning of language use be it of a word, speech act or grammatical items (Richards & Schmidt, 2002). It is considered by Norrish (1983) as a systematic deviation that happens when a learner has not learned something and consistently gets it wrong.
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction Error treatment is a complex phenomenon and it is important to note that error correction is a subcategory of error treatment. Brown (2007) clarifies this, such that “Error treatment encompasses a wide range of options, one of which – at the extreme end of a continuum – may be considered to be a correction” (p. 348). Richards and Schmidt (2010) define error correction as “strategies used by a teacher or more advanced learner to correct errors in a learner’s speech” (p. 185). Corrective feedback is a means of offering modified input to students which could consequently lead to modified output by the students. Corrective feedback may be referred to as negative feedback, negotiated help or error correction.
The firs step is when the learner produces an error and does not notice it as an error. The second step is when a learner produces an error and he/she recognizes it as an error but he/she can not correct it. The mistake when the learner can correct the wrong form may be a third step. This distinction between errors and mistakes is maintained by many theorists. 2.5 Interlanguage The interlanguage of a learner of a second/foreign language is the version of the TL that the learner has in his mind.
Second, theoretical justification as it is a part of the systematic study of the learner’s language (Corder; 1981). By means of error analysis, teachers will have a general knowledge about students’ errors (Xie and Jiang; 2007). The analysis of second language learners proved to be useful in that it sheds light on some of the areas of difficulties faced by learners, and by providing reliable results upon which materials of remediation can be erected as maintained by Keshavarz (2008). Chiang (1981) in a study noted other pedagogical implications of Error Analysis: (1). Making use of the hierarchy of difficulty.
• A Phonological Error: It 's related to pronunciation, intonation, word stress or sentence stress. • An Interpretive Error: It 's related to misunderstanding of a speaker 's intention or meaning. • A Concept or Meaning Error: It 's related to the incorrect use of word- collocation, incorrect use of structure and function. Reasons for making mistakes & errors The researchers analyzed the mistakes and tried to know why they happen, we can sum up the reason as: • First Language interference: The first language grammar may be a reason for errors and mistakes especially when it is related to the use of prepositions. For example: I talked in the phone.
Besides, different visions of CA hypothesis is also touched upon. The strong version claims that learners’ difficulties can be predicted by CA and can be dealt with while the weak version claims that CA can only explain learners’ difficulties. Another version states that differences of patterns may increase the learners’ difficulties. Furthermore, criticisms of CA is showed for it ignores the learners’ internal factors. Next Khansir draws attention to the Error Analysis.
Bell (2005) claims that the teachers of language should engage their learners by using of group working and encouraging their learners to more communicative activities. Although the literature is supplied with studies dedicated to either students’ or teachers’ opinions of various aspects of language learning and teaching (Rubin, 1975, 1981; Naiman Frochlich, Stern, & Todesco, 1978; Wong-Fillmore, 1979; Nation & McLaughlin, 1986; Larsen-Freeman & Long, 1991; Brosh, 1996; Sakui & Gaies, 1999; Horwitz, 1999; Yang, 1999; Cotterall, 1999; Rifkin, 2000; Peacock, 2001; Liao & Chiang, 2003) many researches have specially compared and contrasted individual teachers’ opinions of effective teaching practices with those of students. (Kern, 1995; Bell,
The error control is also called error detection or error correction. It is done for the unreliable media of transfer. Help with error control homework is ready to give you more education and knowledge about the basics of the error control. There can be noise in the transfer medium of the communication channel while the networking and coding theory is using the error control for the reliable and non-reliable modes of communication. For the help with error control assignment establishment we are running a support center on which you can find directors of help and teachers for your concerns of error control.
ROLE OF L1 IN TEACHING METHODOLOGY EFL teachers manage the process of language instruction in their classrooms by exploring the students ' L1. Here, the aim is to first categorize different language teaching methods and then discuss the role and the use of L1 in each of them briefly. A common classification of methods is traditional, alternative, and current communicative methods. In the field of English language teaching the traditional methods of teaching a language are Grammar Translation Method, Direct Method, and Audio-lingual method. A haphazard or careless use of the mother tongue may be an unwanted side-effect of monolingualism, often employed today by disaffected or teachers.
The different causes for error can be caused by different levels of the language learners’ competency in learning English. Richards (1971) classifies error into two categories, those are errors of competence and errors of performance. Errors of competence are the result of the application of rules by the first language learner, which do not correlate to the rule of the second language. It makes the speaker/writer knows what is correct grammatically. While errors of performance refer to the result of a mistake in language use and indicate themselves as false starts, repetition, corrections or slips of the tongue.