2. The concept of error analysis Ellis in said [2014;28] stated that identifying of errors involves a set of procedures for identifying, defining or explaining the error in learner language. In the branch of applied Linguistics, show that learner errors does not commit due to learner's native language but also, they show some specific ways of utilizing the things. Error
In “Ethos and Error: How Business People React to Errors”, Larry Beason (2016) demonstrates how academic mistakes affect both students and teachers, especially business people. Beason’s main argument is that errors influence seriously on nonacademic audiences, not only in common reading but also in normal life. To prove his point of view, Beason does his experiment on fourteen business people reading articles about business and everyday handwriting and see how they react. Beason divides his examination into two phases: a survey with twenty mistakes and an interview with everyone. In the questionnaire, the author introduces five common academic errors and each of them consists four examples.
In recent decades, many studies and researches have been conducted to have a better understanding of foreign language learning and teaching processes and improve them by studying errors, Dulay, Burt and Krashen ( 1982) claimed "a learner would not be able to learn a language without systematically errors" (p. 45). The current study sought to compare and to classify committed errors of the speakers of two different mother languages (Kurdish & Lurish) in a translation test. The participants of the study were 24 high intermediate EFL learners who were in two classes at the same level. At the outset, the researcher administered a teacher-made proficiency test to check the level of the students, then the subjects gave a translation test, they
Many people would agree that language is something that makes people conscious beings. A person can use it for communication, an essential tool for sharing ideas that massively contributed to the development of the human civilization. Moreover, there are many ways to express oneself with a help of words. Furthermore, the quality of language depends on knowledge. If a person knows words, definitions, language structure, can read and write, it gives an individual an immense scope of possibilities, from reading books to writing letters, as well as delivering speeches.
Error Analysis no longer hold that the L1 interference is the main cause of errors in the second language learning,but hold that many factors can cause errors.Also it classified errors,thus benefit both teachers and students. Besides,the difference between Error Analysis and Contrastive Analysis were figured out.The differences included:start point,data,theoretical problems,feedback,consideration of learner’s effect and the types of errors they studied.Moreover,some criticisms towards Error Analysis.Reasons are variety,but mainly laid on limitation in scope,theoretical problems and methodological procedures. Finally,the Interlanguage Theory.Interlanguage is a language system build by learners and is different from L1 and L2.Besides,the term fossilization was put forward to explain the tendency of many learners to stop developing their interlanguage grammar in the direction of the target language.And some criticisms towards the theory. Personal
Error treatment is not always easy for the teachers because the errors are infinite. So the errors have analyzed here through Corder’s plausible reconstruction. Under this theory, the thirty samples were collected of the errors in speaking English and found many grammatical errors besides misinformation, omission, inherent difficulty, erroneous input etc. To overcome these mistakes, the teachers, researchers and institutions should take proper steps to make the students active and motivated in learning and speaking English. In this article we have analyzed various problems on speaking English at undergraduate level in university of Bangladesh.
The first study claims that corrections do not increase writing accuracy, however in (Sheppard, 1992) this result is contradicted by the evidence that Group A increased significally in verb accuracy yet it was not more than group B. These contradictions may result from the method used to address errors. On the other hand, the third study made clear that grammar corrections were the least preferred type of feedback by students as they considered ineffective. Consequently, there is still the question whether teachers should or not leave form corrective feedback aside. Considering that the three studies were done in university settings, it is valuable to question whether the results can be generalized in high school environments where the amount of writing
The second language learner may be correct and having lack of confidence or incorrect and fluent (Spolsky, 1989). Sharwood-Smith (1986) is following Bailstok and has presented a cognitive model that gives the variation among the competence and control. In this model, competence is presented on the abstract basis of knowledge, greatly referring to the rules that are already existing in the memory as like the theory of Chomsky's generative grammar. Control has the approach to these competence and cognitive rules that are used in the form of the utterance of acts and in the production of utterances (Bsilstok and Sharwood-Smith, 1985). All the innate and inner theories are having some flaws due to the empirical proofs, and the linguistic theories are not able to describe the language fully.
According to Sharma(1980s) ‘error analysis can thus provide a strong support to remedial teaching”, he added that during the teaching program, it can reveal both successes and failures of the program. Duley et al(1982) mentioned that the term “error” to refer to a systematic deviation from a selected norm or set of norms. Corder (1974) suggests the following steps in EA research: 1) Collection of a sample of learner language 2) Identification of errors 3) Description of errors 4) Explanation 4) Evolution of errors. Explaining the explanation errors, Ellis(2001,57-59 )claims that errors can be categorized according to psycholinguistics process ,into two types : 1. Inter lingual
The acquisition of the first language differs in a number of ways from that in second language, because the speaker focuses only on one linguistic system but in second language focuses on two linguistic systems, so the acquisition of first language is natural process as well the acquisition of second language is learning process. Error analysis was established in 1970 as an alternative to contrastive analysis, error analysis can be considered as an approach in linguistics to find out the difficulties in acquisition of second language, that is why it can be considered as one of the most important elements or instruments in the process of teaching English in all Arab schools and universities. In Corder (1967:167) argues that "the learner 's errors are significant in that they provide to the researcher evidence of how language is learned or acquired" means that the errors have