1.4.4 The three super-strategies of the politeness theory According to Leech, politeness is basically strategies used to avoid conflict and according to the degree of effort put in the words used to avoid conflicts, it can be measured. (Leech, 1980, p. 19). In order to mitigate the effect of the speaker’s words, he or she has to adopt strategies that can alleviate the tension; therefore, according to Brown and Levinson: There are three main strategies of politeness, ‘positive politeness’ (roughly, the expression of restraint), ‘negative politeness’ (roughly, the expression of restraint), and ‘off-record (politeness)’ (roughly, the avoidance of unequivocal impositions), and claim that the uses of each are tied to social determinants, specifically
Theory of politeness by Lakoff considers politeness is a universal thing (Terkourafi, n.d.). Further, Brown and Levinson (1978) gave the theory of politeness that drew for Goffman’s idea of face and more extended upon Lakoff’s standards for politeness. As stated by Brown and Levinson there are two sorts of face. Negative face which desire to express individual’s ideas without resistance and positive face which desire to have individual’s contributions approved of. These negative and positive faces reflect two different desires present in every communication
2. Theoretical hypotheses Hypothesis 1: While somebody is talking about problems, women use language to express empathy, while men prefer to give a piece of advice. (G. Rodman and R. Adler, 2003) This hypothesis is based on assumptions made by George Rodman and Ronald
Additionally, positive politeness strategies is defined as aimed “to save positive face by demonstrating closeness and solidarity, appealing to friendship, making other people feel good, and emphasizing that both speakers have a common goal” (Cutting, 2008, p. 48). Similarly, Yule (1996) emphasized the notion of solidarity as a positive politeness strategy by which the speaker tends to use positive politeness linguistic forms to reduce the distance and emphasize closeness; the main linguistic resources to achieve solidarity are the use of “personal information, use of nicknames, abusive terms, and shared dialect or slang expressions” (p.
According to lusti.M&Koester.J, 2010 are mentioned about cultural pattern, means "shared beliefs, values, norms and social practices that are stable over time and that lead to roughly similar behaviors across similar situations." Such as, being polite is a rule of being good and nice
In other language, it means politeness can be either linguistics or actions taken by people based on the social system and rules applied in the society or culture. Besides that, politeness acts as modus vivendi that allows and maintains conflicting parties to coexist in peace. This view is supported by Elisabeth Grande (2010) which claimed that taking care, being open-minded as well as hospitable to each other is within our nature of human being. Previous researchers pointed out politeness is elucidated as conflict avoidance method in a way that reflects Western social norms (Wierzbicka, 1985; Mao, 1994). However, regardless of either Western or Eastern,
Brown and Levinson’s (1987) theory has been considered as the most influential theory of politeness. They based their theory on Goffman’s (1971) assumptions, focusing mainly on his notion of face. Their theory of politeness is related to the pragmatic focus on the social functions of language implied in interactions bearing in mind Austin’s (1962) classification of utterances. From Austin’s classification, Brown and Levinson’s (1987) theory tried to clarify what it is said and its implications paying attention to the social functions of language. Furthermore, they also adopted speaker’s rationality in conversation introduced by Grice (1975).
‘Positive politeness’ is expressed by satisfying ‘positive face’ in two ways: 1) by indicating similarities amongst interactants; or 2) by expressing an appreciation of the interlocutor’s self-image. The different types of positive politeness strategies are (e.g., noticing or attending to hearer, seeking agreement, avoiding disagreement). In Negative politeness the speaker minimizes the threat to the negative face to show respect and also not to show an imposition on the listener or it expresses respect and consideration, being pessimistic, minimizing the imposition and giving deference, are the examples of negative politeness strategies. (Brown & Levinson 1987,
Self-awareness not only enables our self-reflection, but also motivates us to be a better person. Keywords: self-concept formation, introspection, the looking glass self, social comparison, self-perception, impression management, self-awareness, self-reflection, standard, self-deception, WHAT MAKES YOU WHO YOU ARE People are curious about themselves, especially psychologists. They offered many psychological concepts for us to understand the concept of self. In this essay, it discusses
Positive words like please, thank you, welcome, appreciate, agree, satisfactory, praise and so on, should be used. Courtesy Courtesy means a friendly and helpful behaviour towards others. Polite manners facilitate communications. Politenesses beget politeness and encourage participative communication. When a professional interacts with others in a formal communication set up, it is very important that the principle of courtesy to be followed at every step.