Myosin head bind tightly onto the actin at the binding site and forming a temporary cross-bridge. The formation of this cross bridge resulting in the phosphorylation of the ADP and inorganic phosphate in to ATP. This induces a power stroke movement of the myosin head creating a pulling force on the Z lines of the sarcomere and efficiently allowing the two filaments to slide over each other. The sliding of filaments causes the sarcomere to shorten and the skeletal muscle to
When the heart contracts and pours blood in these arteries, the walls need to stretch to house the blood. The arterial hydrostatic pressure that results from ventricular contraction is the systolic blood pressure. The period between the heart constrictions, the elastic walls recoil to maintain the blood pressure. The arterial hydrostatic pressure between contractions is the diastolic blood pressure. The walls of these have a lot of elastin .Elastin is a fibre which is made up of proteins.
Within the trunk the diaphragm pushes into the abdomen during inward breathing. The expanded abdominal pressure pushes the lymph into the less tensioned thorax. The pressure gradient turns around amid exhalation, yet the check valves stop the lymph from being pushed
The process of peristalsis starts in the oesophagus when a bolus of food is gulp down. The food is brought to the stomach by the strong wave-like motions of the smooth muscle in the oesophagus, where it is churned into a liquid compositioncalled chyme. The process of peristalsis proceeds in the small intestine where it blends the chyme byits to and fro motion and here nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through the small intestine walls. Peristalsis ended in the large intestine where water is absorbed into the bloodstreamfrom the undigested food constituent. Finally, the residual waste products are expelled from the body through the rectum and anus.
Introduction Gallbladder is an organ in the body and it is part of the biliary system. It is a pear-shaped muscular sac that is located on the ventral surface of the liver and on the right side of the abdomen. Moreover, it has 3 layers; an outer serous peritoneal layer, a middle smooth muscle layer and the last layer is an inner mucosal layer which is connected to the lining of the bile duct. The main function of the gallbladder is to store and concentrate bile which helps the body to break down and digest fats. The liver produces bile which flows into the gallbladder through the bile ducts.
It locks the midfoot during toe-off to provide a rigid structure for propulsion.The plantar fascia then passively contracts, converting the previously stored potential energy into kinetic energy and aiding acceleration.15 Pathophysiology of the plantar fascia is a thickened fibrous sheet of connective tissue that originates from the medial tubercle on the undersurface of the calcaneus and fans out, attaching to the plantar plates of the metatarsophalangeal joints to form the medial longitudinal arch of the foot. It provides key functions during running and walking. In general, the purpose of the plantar fascia is two fold to provide support of the longitudinal arch and to serve as a dynamic shock absorber for the foot and entire
PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallbladder Gallbladder is a pear shaped structure organ ,which is inferior to interlobar fissure between right and left hemiliver. Gallbladder is divided into three parts ; Neck, Body and fundus. Gallbladder is located in right hypochondrium region that is inferior surface of right lobe of liver. Keep in mind; When patient take meal.
So by suprahyoid muscle contraction comes to rise of hyoid bone, larynx and pharynx if the jaw is fixed, and if the muscle is fixed by infrahyoid comes to lowering of hyoid bone and retreat back the lower jaw, which allows you to open your mouth. The optimum position of the cranio-cervical structures is a prerequisite for performing various vital functions such as breathing or swallowing. Dysfunction of any structure in cranio-cervical region can lead to disorders, which can manifest itself in other structures of the cranio-cervical region. To what extent will a disorder manifested depends on a lot on the individual ability of individuals to adapt to the disturbance occurred
INTRODUCTION Peptic ulcers are also known as “ulcus pepticum”. An ulcer is defined as a non malignant mucosal lesion of the stomach. It occurs due to exposure of stomach and duodenum to pepsin and gastric acid. Peptic ulcer is due to imbalance occurs between aggressive factors like acid, pepsin, H. pylori and defensive factors such as gastric mucus, nitric oxide and growth factors bicarbonate ions and prostaglandins, mucosal blood1. Local mechanisms implicated in mucosal defence are mucus-bicarbonate secretion, mucosal hydrophobicity, rapid epithelial cell restitution and rich mucosal blood flow2.
Some examples are the circulatory, the excretory, the muscle, and the digestive systems. For example, the digestion system is an organ system that digests the food a person eats. Some organs in the digestive system are the esophagus, rectum, stomach, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, large intestine, small intestine, and appendix. The digestive system is very important because without it, organisms would not be able to digest food. Food would just sit inside the body or go through it without the body taking any energy for fuel.
Mrs. Fender’s jaundice is caused by the accumulation of bilirubin in her blood and tissues. What is the normal fate of bilirubin, and what role does the liver play? Explain how Mrs. Fender’s cirrhosis is related to her jaundice. • Bilirubin is a product of the heme of hemoglobin formed during the breakdown of erythrocytes. The liver removes the bilirubin from the blood and excretes it into the intestines as bile.