The parietal layer lines the inner regions of the fibrous pericardium, while the visceral layer lines the outer layer of the heart and therefore it is called epicardium. Pericardial Cavity A void space found among the two linings of serous pericardium is called pericardial cavity, which encircles the heart. Between the parietal and visceral layer is the pleural cavity, which holds the pleural fluid. About 20–30 ml in volume, this serous fluid acts as a lubricant and minimizes friction between the epicardium and parietal layer as the heart muscles expand and contract with the beating of the heart.
Like the veins of the circulatory system, lymphatic vessels and vessels move lymph with next to no weight to help with flow. To contribute to the movement of the lymphatic duct, there are a number of ways to check if valves are found in the lymphatic system. This checks if the valves are accepting lymph to manoeuvre to the lymphatic ducts and when the lymph tries get away from the ducts. In the limbs, the skeletal muscles contract and squeeze the walls of the lymphatic vessels to push the lymph through the valves and near the thorax. Within the trunk the diaphragm pushes into the abdomen during inward breathing.
It lies to the left of the midline and enters the abdomen through the oesophageal aperture (formed by the two diaphragmatic crura) opposite the level of the tenth thoracic vertebra. It runs obliquely to the left and slightly posteriorly, and ends at the gastro-oesophageal junction/cardiac orifice of the stomach. The abdominal oesophagus lies posterior to the left lobe of the liver, which it grooves slightly, anterior to the left crus, the left inferior phrenic vessels and the left greater splanchnic nerve; its surface is covered in a thin layer of connective tissue and visceral peritoneum which contains the anterior and posterior vagi as well as the oesophageal branches of the left gastric vessels. The anterior vagus may be single or composed of multiple trunks, and is closely related to the outer fibres of the longitudinal muscle coat of the oesophagus. The posterior vagus is usually a single trunk and is less closely applied to the oesophageal muscle within the loose connective tissue, which makes its identification during surgery somewhat easier.
The Scarpa and Camper fascia coalesce and attach to the clavicles superiorly and limit further cephalad extension of any infection that may have stated in the perineum. The Colles fascia is attached to the pubic arch and the base of the perineal membrane and is continuous with the superficial Dartos fascia of the scrotum. This perineal membrane is also called the inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm and together with Colles fascia, it defines the superficial perineal
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 1. INTRODUCTION The circulatory system is also known as the cardiovascular system. This system is a double circulatory closed system which transports blood via arteries, veins and capillaries to the lungs through the pulmonary circulation and to the rest of the body tissues in the systemic circulation. Since the blood travels to varying distances around the body, the blood vessels have to be adapted to overcome different pressures.
Once hatched in the small intestine, the worms bind to the gut wall. The worms are also able to travel the blood stream. If the worms travel into vessels that transfer blood into different organs it triggers an inflammatory reaction. The most common organs that are affected by toxocariasis are the liver, lungs, and eyes. The liver is extremely vascular, meaning it will be the first organ affected by toxocariasis followed by the lungs, eyes, and in severe cases the heart.
Introduction: The salivary glands are exocrine glands which have two functions,firstly is the production of saliva which helps the passage of food through the oesophagus to the stomach, secondly the salivary enzymes which are responsible for the breakdown of nutrients so it is responsible for the first step of digestion. The salivary glands are divided into major and minor groups. The major glans are three pairs which are the parotid, submandibular and sublingual while the minor glands are numerous and scattered in the nasal and oral cavities, paranasal sinuses, soft palate, larynx and pharynx.
The process of peristalsis starts in the oesophagus when a bolus of food is gulp down. The food is brought to the stomach by the strong wave-like motions of the smooth muscle in the oesophagus, where it is churned into a liquid compositioncalled chyme. The process of peristalsis proceeds in the small intestine where it blends the chyme byits to and fro motion and here nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through the small intestine walls. Peristalsis ended in the large intestine where water is absorbed into the bloodstreamfrom the undigested food constituent. Finally, the residual waste products are expelled from the body through the rectum and anus.
This Interlobar fissure is the landmark sign that indicates, the gall bladder is contracted or filled with stones. Parts Of Gallbladder: Fundus projects beyond the inferior border of the liver in the angle between the lateral border of the right rectus abdominis and the 9th costal cartilage. It is completely surrounded by peritoneum. Body located in fossa for the
It is a tube that leads to the stomach and lungs. The larynx has three main divisions the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx. The nasopharynx is where air passses, oropharynx is where food and air pass through, and lastly the laryngopharynx is also where the air and food pass through. Another part of the respiratory system is the larynx which is also known as the voice box. The larynx is anterior to the neck.
Epiglottis is the thin elastic cartilaginous structure at the root of the tongue that covers the glottis to stop food and liquid from getting into the trachea during swallowing. The glottis is the vocal area of the larynx, vocal cords and the opening. Epiglottis is the inflammation of the epiglottis, the flap at the end of the throat, the infection is life threatening and can come on quickly. It’s caused by a bacterial infection, with influenzas, which causes mojitos, pneumonia, ear infection, and sinus infections when the flap at the bottom of the throat gets infected it will become red, sore and swollen. This could cause the voice to be a horse with high fever and difficulty in breathing.
Gastric bypass surgery shrinks the size the stomach to limit the amount of food that can be eaten. The most common type in the U.S. is the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Surgeons make a small incision through which to access the stomach. A small pouch is created by either banding or stapling part of the stomach. A Y-shaped section of the small intestine is connected to the pouch that allows food to bypass part of the digestive system so that fewer calories and nutrients are absorbed.