Identity 2. n-Fold Rotations 3. Reflection 4. Inversion 5. Improper n-Fold Rotation 1. Identity is indicated as E does nothing, has no effect all molecules/objects possess the identity operation, i.e., posses E. E has the same importance as the number 1 does in multiplication (E is needed in order to define inverses).
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When bilinguals are with monolinguals e.g. Grandfather or Gramdmother who can only speak pashto and had difficulty in speaking Urdu, they will conversate in only one language (pashto) or otherwise communication breaks down. In case of childern when they find a given truly monolingual speech sitaution but not a “pretended’’ one then they will definetly make an attempt to speak only in one language if they feel it is essential for communication. Code is generally considered in the linguistic field as the substitute for language, and it can be employed to talk about any kind of the system of language. Several scholars have attempted to define code-switching.
Language contact situation directly give the way to linguistic changes. Millet, believed that grammatical loans can only occur when the source and receiving systems are very similar (1921:87), and according to Jakobson ‘a language accepts foreign structural elements only when they correspond to its own tendencies of development’ (1962 :241). These beliefs probably arose ultimately from a conviction that the Comparative Method would be threatened by the existence of extensive structural diffusion. Schuchardt, a major critic of what he saw as the ‘Neogrammarians’ intellectual rigidity in ignoring foreign interference, was the founder of pidgin/creole studies, because mixed languages like pidgins and creoles challenge
He argues that Orientalism has provided the way for colonial possession and exploitation of the East. Said proposes that a society paves its identity more effectively by imagining an ‘Other’. However, the cultural and intellectual superiority imagined by the west was foreshadowed by an imagined East which remained culturally static and inferior. And the same treatment is applied to the Western construction of all ‘Other’ (cited in Spencer 2006). Orientalism was almost European invention.
The process of being told only the top of a whole meaning for then to analyse and think your way to what the addresser’s intention thoroughly is has a very efficient and powerful effect. The short story “Hills like White Elephants” is a great example of Hemmingway’s use of minimalistic writing style. In the story, it would hardly be relevant to talk about credibility of the narrator since facts and objective things are the only things that are put forward or described by the narrator. The narrator is an observer, which means he only gives us a restricted access to what’s genuinely going on between the two characters that the story revolves around. To give an example: “It’s really an awfully simple operation, Jig (…) It’s just to let the air in.” In this excerpt, Hemmingway
It was a new universal language, which stood in opposition to nationalism and aggression with “linguistic handshake” and where people of different nations could communicate with each other. Despite all the mockery from publicist and linguists, Zamenhof abandoned his copyright and signed the book with a name which meant “one who hopes” in his new language: Dr Esperanto. Esperanto has a great advantage over all purposed universal language. At the turn of XIX and XX century, many all-reaching languages has been invented: Univesalglot, Volapük, Interlingua, Indo, Glosa and many others. Moreover, Esperanto is an inventive try to standardise different elements of roman and German languages.
The codification of English was as primary component in the process of standardization, it is known that the history of English illustrates the inevitability of linguistic change. “In the seventeenth and eighteenth century, the lexicographers in England had published some developed dictionaries, but the lexicons in both England and America were set to standards by Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary of the English Language.” (Seargeant and Swann, 2012, p. 92) “Samuel Johnson was born in 1709 in Lichfield, Staffordshire. The son of a bookseller, he rose to become one of the greatest literary figures of the eighteenth century, most famously compiling A Dictionary of the English Language.” (Dr. Johnson’s House, Samuel Johnson, 2012). Before getting into more details about Dr. Johnson’s dictionary in the seventh and eighteenth century, let’s mention that the English language grew more though years to become a national language. Before it became a national language, English was not even original in England.
The process of dictionary codification to reach English standardization Introduction: English language passed many stages until it reached its current standard structure. In this essay, I am going to discuss the way that codified English language in dictionaries; in addition to stating the reasons behind recommending dictionaries. The essay will shed the light on the history of English language in the past until its standardization. As well known, in the past there was no English language in the world, but only Celtic languages were spoken with many dialects since Anglo- Saxons arrived in Britain. Therefore English was one of many dialects that is spoken by Western coast of Europe.
Therefore, the word “ranu” is seldom used in a conversation and same goes in English. As I had mentioned earlier, it is important to make yourself clear and polite at the same time in a conversation (Lackoff, 1977 in Elyased, 2014). Since these three deixis, person, spatial and temporal are universal in some languages, they are not necessarily to be learned by English Language learners. The similarities that these languages possessed, Iban and English will make it easier for ESL learners to learn the