In the 1970s, the wage gap decreased because “women’s progress in education and workforce participation” (Miller, 2018). However currently there is still a wage gap: for every dollar a man makes a woman makes eighty cents for same job – on average. What is being seen recently is that intersectionality plays a vital role in the wage gap as well; not only are women being paid less than men, but some races of women are being paid less than others. It was discovered that “among full-time workers in 2016, Hispanic or Latina, black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN), and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander (NHPI) women had lower median annual earnings compared with non-Hispanic white and Asian women” (Miller, 2018). It was also revealed that Asian women have the smallest wage gap when compared to men and that Hispanic women have the largest wage gap when compared to men.
Women encounter greater problems than men with regards to adjusting work and private life. Family, care and household duties are not equally shared. More women than men choose to take parental leave as women often borne the task of taking care their family members. In addition, the lack of facilities for childcare and elderly care have caused women to leave the workforce. According to a survey of working parents done by Pew Research Center (2015), it is found that 39 percent of mothers took time off to take care of their children or family and 27 percent responded that they have to quit their career.
There is an income inequality that exists in the Unites States, women earn on average 80% what the average male makes. In 2016, the median earning of males was $51, 640 while women made $41, 554 (Semega, 2017). Education also plays a role in the gender pay gap and even though women may be receiving the same degree as a man they continue to be paid less. The pay gap associated with education is illustrated by Larkin, "On average, a male with a bachelor's degree will earn $25,000 more than a female with a similar degree. Women with a master's degree earn $32,500 less than men possessing a similar degree" (2015, para.
The gender gap in economic participation can be measured through the difference in numbers between men and women participating in the labour workforce. In the world currently, 82% of men participate in the labour workforce while only 56% of women do. It is estimated that if women participated in the workforce identically to men, the annual gross domestic product (GDP) in 2025 could increase as much as 26%; closing the gender gap by allowing more women to participate in the workforce is critical for long-term economic benefits. However, several factors hold women back from economic participation for several reasons, such as social norms, discriminatory laws, and gaps in legal protection. Therefore, it is crucial for governments to enforce laws
Household responsibilities such as childcare and care for the aged are known to keep women away from formal employment. A further break-up of data related to unmarried women who were in regular salaried jobs shows that more than 50% of them were educated up to the higher secondary and above level. Moreover, nearly all the unmarried women were full time workers (96%) as compared to married women (88%).Even educated women do not like to get in labor market because of migration. Further he says that migration has not only affected the women economic condition but also of the men it can be because of the work change caste, poverty
(Boella; Pannett, 1996) Employment Protection Consolidation Act 1978, adversely affects women because many more women than men work part-time. The Employment Protection Part-Time Employees Regulations 1995 came into effect to remove the complex employment rights which have been based upon benchmarks of an employee working eight or sixteen hours per week. Previously employees had to complete five years’ service to qualify for employment rights and employees working fewer than eight hours never qualified for those rights. Jobs do not have to be identical for courts to consider them equal. If two employees are doing the same work, it doesn't matter if their titles or job descriptions differ.
In an interview with Facebook’s Sheryl Sandberg, she states that there “female senior managers [ a high professional and management jobs] are paid less than male senior managers it’s that there are fewer female senior managers than male.” she also states that “this hugely skews those average figures like the 77 cents per dollar that are bandied about (Perry).” Sandberg tries to prove with this fact that the reason that there 's a pay difference is due to the fact that there are not enough females holding high enough positions to reinforce the pay gap. Within Mark Perry’s article, he believes that there is no gender wage gap, rather a gender earnings gap. Perry provides twenty different gender gaps that reflects gender difference in the market, his examples help prove why gaps are generally favored towards men. This helps him explain why men earn higher incomes on average than women. These facts make you think about how some men put their lives at risk by working in the cold or working with life threatening things.
We have seen that gender is socially constructed and globalised concept which attributes differing social roles and identities to men and women.Gender differences cause some attitudes which refers as gender inequality almost in all societies.It is one of the most debated topic that many sociologist studied.We can see this gender inequality almost in every part in our life and advertising is one of the most popular area that we see this inequality.” Advertising is an over $200 billion a year industry. We are each exposed to over 3000 advertisements a day. Yet, remarkably, most of us believe we are not influenced by advertising. Advertisements sell a great deal more than products. They sell values, images, and concepts of success and worth, love and sexuality, popularity and normalcy.
Why Are Women Paid Less? —— It Is Not an Issue Only About Discrimination That Simple According to a survey by North American Industry System(NAICS), based on average wages, all workers in 2014 including full-time and part-time, women earned just 75.3% compared to men. As more and more women enter the labor market, this issue is increasingly attached great importance, and whether this issue relates to discrimination is the biggest concern. In his article, Mark Perry, the professor of economics and finance, argues if the gender wage gap is caused by discrimination. In his opinion, simply claim that women are paid less due to discrimination is “fundamentally misleading” and “economically illogical.” There are more factors that affects this issue.
However, sexism and more particularly gender inequality in the workplace not only persist but increases in ways many of us do not realize or do not want to realize. According to the United States Census Bureau women only make 79 cents to every dollar a man earns. Women are also less likely to get promoted though women and men say they want to be promoted in about equal numbers. American workplaces are far from achieving gender equality in the workplace.
For many years women have been seen as being “lesser” than men, and even in this great country, women didn 't have the right to vote until the passing of the 19th amendment in 1919. That amendment was passed almost 100 years ago, and surely we have changed for the better...Right? Many people would say that we have, however, it is clear that a woman working the same job as a man is making a significant amount less than the man would. This is a big problem in our country for a number of reasons. The most shocking fact about this pay gap is that there are so many single mothers out there who need to feed, care for, and comfort their children.
One of the biggest struggles that women has to go through is not getting paid as equally as men. An Equal Pay Act in 1963 had to be made in order to forbid sex based wage discrimination, even though women are still getting 91 cents of every dollar earned by men (10 Challenges That American Women Still Face Today, paragraph. 2). In Russia, many women are paid less than men and their wage and salaries were 70% of men (Snezhkova, (2005), Page 3). This became a problem for many other countries where women wages would be 84% of men also and they would only receive just 58% of the income from their spouse (Social Inequalities, the World Cup, and Some Simple Solutions, Paragraph 6).
The statistics also showed that women took more time off then men, fifty-six percent compared to forty-four percent, that is with any type of reason for the leave. With the United States not offering paid maternity leave for new mothers it has made it very difficult for people to work with this issue, and most are struggling. Some topics you should know about the maternity leave in the United States is only four states have announced publicly they have paid maternity leave, women are struggling with the policies, policies contribute to a gap in gender pay, FMLA doesn’t help everyone, jobs with technology have the best benefits, having paid maternity leave would be good for business, companies are working on these policies and so is
In today’s society despite of the progress women have reached there are still barriers that are placed in society. According to author “Thirty-four percent of all families headed by women are poor: the rates are higher for African American women, Latinas and Native American women, and the rate has been increasing” (Andersen, 2015, p. 3). The previous statistics reveal that even living in a society were “equality for both genders” is usually advocated, women’s are still suffering the biggest discrimination in the workplace and in society. Even professional women working full time are being paid less than males. Moreover, professional women are continuously suffering from barriers such as the glass ceiling effect this clearly affect women from raising to upper level positions.
Web. 24 Oct. 2016. With the clear gender roles in place it was hard for females to get jobs, espilacy well paying jobs were they weren’t constantly put down. It was even worse for females of color as discrimination ran rampant during the progressive era, with lynchings, police brutality, mobs, and other dangers out in the world females of color were degraded for not only being women but for being of a different ethnicity. “Comparison, black women only narrowed that gap by 9 cents, from earning 56 cents for every dollar earned by a white man in 1980 to 65 cents today.” "Racial, Gender Wage Gaps Persist in U.S. despite Some" N.p., n.d.