Trade also introduced Arab and Islamic culture, along with the Arabic writing system. Expansion also brought major cities, like Gao and Timbuktu, that became well-known to the outside world. In fact, after Mansa Musa delivered the imperial gold to Mecca and Egypt, maps began to appear with the Mali Empire and Timbuktu labeled. Timbuktu can be considered to be the most famous and one of the most important cities culturally.
During the 15th and 16th centuries, leaders of a few European nations sent expeditions out in the hope that explorers would find great wealth and vast undiscovered lands. The Portuguese were the earliest participants in this “Age of Discovery.” Starting in about 1420, Portuguese ships sailed the African coast, carrying spices, gold, slaves and other goods from Africa and Asia to Europe.
Other pieces of Muslim architecture, such as the great Mosque of Djenne, are evidence of the religion’s dominance in Sub-Saharan Africa. Along the Indian Ocean trade routes, we also see Islam as a dominant religion, but there is much more of a variety. Evidence of Islam in Eastern Africa can be found in the language itself. Swahili, the dominant language of the region, is influenced heavily by Arabic. Buddhist traders from India and China spread the religion to some inhabitants of Eastern Africa.
Ferdinand Magellan, Vasco da Gama who found sea route to India, Pedro Cabral who discovered Brazil, and Bartolomeu Dias who reached Africa all expanded Europeans land and all studied at the Institute of Sagres. The start of the late fifteenth century, explorers, conquerors, missionaries, merchants, and adventurers was seeking to claim new land to colonize or to live. It was only a matter of time before royal enemies fought over land possession and trade routes. This fighting over lands, settlements, trade, and exploration actually led to the growth of New World. The Europeans, technology allowed them to use their influence, negotiation, or military force to control the lands and as the trade routes grew an economic system of mercantilism was
This paper will be mainly about the countries that streamed. Although, the Spanish and Portuguese firstly discovered the East by the help of Ferdinand Magellan via going westward, the later the Netherlands and Britain dominated the main strength there. In fact, the Dutch’s main purpose was to have an access to the lucrative spice trade at that time, which was under the controlling of Portugal. In this way, in the wake of having acquired the data on the sea routes to the East, Dutch maritime force was utilized to assault the Portuguese fortresses and posts on the source to some products such as the wellspring of nutmeg, mace and cloves. Despite the fact that the strategy of Dutch was prosperous and spice trading monopoly was secured, they confronted the solid rivalry of Britain’s developing sea interests.
With exploration well under way, the Old World was pining to discover new commodities. In 1492, Christopher Columbus set sail west in hopes of finding Asia. What he discovered however opened a major trade exchange between the New and Old worlds. The Columbian Exchange helped to establish trade routes between multiple civilizations as well as shape modern global cuisines. The initial motivation for exploration came from the Portuguese and their desire to sail south along the coast of Africa.
Even though Native Americans excited longer, the history of the United States usually begins with its discovery in 1492 and the first colonies which were founded by European settlers. The settlements all started in 1588 with Britain’s victory over the Spanish Armada which made England the world’s number one sea power. Due to that, they were able to acquire more colonies. This is what marked the beginning of the First British Empire, to which New England also belonged in the beginning. England’s reasons for building the First Empire were commercial and military interests.
Even in modern times, Islamisation is still on the rise. Due to the power Islam potentially holds, it is important to understand the relationship between Islam and politics. As Indonesia is home to the largest Muslim population in the world, it would be suitable for use as a key example. In the case of Indonesia, the introduction of Islam can be divided into three phases; from 622 to 1100, as a product of commercial contact with maritime regions of the Indian Ocean through trade that dates back to before the Islamic period; from 1100 to 1500, where the widespread of Islam was focused more on the spiritual belief rather than rituals. In the last phase, which extends from 1500 to current times, Islam continues to influence the culture and literature in Indonesia.
He ruled for twenty-five years, from 1312 to 1337. But during these times, Mansa Musa gained control of important trade routes and helped spread Islam. Though, the question is, what contributed more, Islam or geography, to the wealth and power of the West African Empires. Most people would say that Islam was the main factor. Others would argue and say that geography was the main factor.
The British were among several European competitors; The Portuguese, the French, and the Dutch who had secured small footholds in the country in the seventeenth century. They started their career in the teeth of bitter opposition as a purely trading corporation which was the East Indian Company. During the period of Mughal supremacy the British did not think of conquering India. But when India surrendered to anarchy they were obliged to protect their settlements and finally began to interfere in the politics of this country through the rebellious princelings. However, situations had changed significantly by the close of the eighteenth century.