Self-concepts are an individual 's perception of their own actions, potential, and distinctive characteristics. These self-concepts give the individual an essential motive for behavior. Furthermore, the theory states that people and groups are influenced by cultural and social processes. Therefore, social structure is worked out through social interaction. This paper aims to analyze symbolic interaction theory, discuss its history, criticisms, as well as emphasizing the current social condition of gender inequality which relates to it.
— Stanley Kunitz Introduction Archetypes enrich our interaction literature and help us discover the layers of meaning the texts convey. They also help us acknowledge the values of different cultures and interconnectedness in a universal perspective. Archetypal patterns generally serve to clarify the individual texts in relation to broader patterns. Seven Sleepers of Ephesus may not be considered as archetypes by many scholars but we can see the pattern of that story in various pieces of literature for centuries. The pattern is not that prevalent those such as good and evil, a journey, quest, or death and rebirth, but the situation is recurrently employed by many authors.
This chapter presents an extensive review on literature done on acculturation and cross cultural adjustment in different contexts. First, definitions of culture and cross-cultural adjustment are proposed. Theories, models and previous studies on acculturation and cross-cultural adaptation are also reviewed thoroughly. Culture definition Revisited Before commencing a review of the research on cross-cultural adjustment, it is important to discuss the concept of culture and its operationalization as it constitutes the backbone of this ethnographic study. The dynamic and relative nature of culture inevitably has led researchers not only to define it in different ways but also come up with divergent connotations and point of views.
To avoid this narrow cognition of meaning, many fields of studies explore the concept of multimodality and its modes from various perspectives. Thus, there are different approaches that engage in the research of the multimodality defined as “understanding of human meaning making” (ed. Litosseliti, 2010, p. 194). Farther, Rick Iedema (2003) observes that multimodality “provides the means to describe a practice or representation in all its semiotic complexity and richness” (p. 39). Multimodality, at this point, is multidimensional and its modes might be understood differently depending on various planes, like context or situation.
What is culture? Culture can be described as the system of beliefs, values, artifacts and behavior. It is a common denominator so that the actions of individuals from a group are understandable to another group. Different people in different societies can have a different culture, but there also are some similarities. It can be described as norms and social behavior found in human society.
It is said that our thoughts and behaviour, as human beings, are influence by people around and the social influences in which a situation occur. Therefore the different aspects of our behaviour is as a result of the ecological model, which is the; individual, family, school, community, society and the culture. The interactions and the impacts between an individual and the ecological model are integrated in the study of social psychology. Social psychology is a scientific discipline that seeks to understand the nature and causes of human behavior in the social environment. Therefore focus on the factors that influence people to behave the way they do in the presence of their social, and it also examines the circumstances under which certain
Our culture and individual differences play a similar role in a person’s perception. An attribution is the casual observation we make for an observed behavior. There are internal and external attributions. External attributions are when we explain a behavior by referring to the situation. Internal attributions are explaining someone’s behavior using the internal characteristic of the individual.
Social construction of reality can be referred to as the theory of the how we present ourselves to other people which is somewhat molded by our relations with others, as well as by our life experiences. Our views as individuals on reality can be influenced by how we were brought up and what we were brought up to believe affect how we present ourselves, how we perceive others, and how others perceive us. To say the least, our discernments of reality are colored by our beliefs and
Social Cognitive Theory and Self-efficacy Social cognitive theory studies the human capacity to “ exercise control over the nature and quality of one’s quality life” Bandura (2001), as quoted by Swackhamer (2009). This human agency or exercise of control allows individuals to make things happen through intentional actions. As Bandura (2001)described human agency as being guided through four cognitive channels: self-regulation, self-reflectiveness, intentionality, and forethought. Self-regulation is the ability of a person to observe the preferred choice of action through goal setting and motivation. On the other hand, self-reflection refers to the evaluation of the person’s motivation, values, and the importance of the chosen action.
Self-concepts are the mental constructs of the object of self, “me” which includes the cognitive, attitude and evaluative judgments about the desires, wishes, inferences, and how others act towards ones’ self (Oyserman et.al, 2012). Self-esteem is the evaluation, we make for our self. When we