A majority of the United States’ population has a different native language than English. Kathleen Escamilla, an Assistant Professor of Education at the University of Arizona, states that sixty-one percent of those people share a common native language: Spanish. Because of the rising numbers of students not being fluent in English the United States began to incorporate bilingual education programs into schools so that these students could be taught English. Bilingual education programs “involve placing English as a second language (ESL) students in classrooms where instruction is given in both English and the students’ native language” according to Lee and McMahon. Since the emergence of the programs, several laws and amendments passed through Congress to make bilingual education programs more efficient.
There are students in school whose first language might be Spanish, Chinese, or Vietnamese, among others. Students who do not understand English are considered English learners (ELs) and they “need help in learning to speak, read, and write in English” (Kauchak & Eggen, 2017, p. 84). There are four programs that teachers can incorporate in response to language diversity. One program is referred to as bilingual maintenance. In a bilingual maintenance program, students continue to use their primary language while “the emphasis on English …increases in each subsequent grade” (Kauchak & Eggen, 2017, p. 85).
Introduction Students whose home language is other than English are increasing in number. Most of them come into schools with different language backgrounds, cultures, and values. Schools should be prepared when it comes to meeting the needs of English language learners (ELLs) to ensure that they are being provided with the best education possible to be successful. Therefore, districts all around the country have put different programs into place for supporting the large population of ELLs. Unfortunately, these language programs have not always been readily available for ELLs and their families.
I have seen in these younger students that they have a hard time grasping another language, they get frustrated and give up. I have had parents complain that schools are spending too much time on bilingual teaching when the time could be spent on learning a more useful subject matter. Parents have asked me, “why should their English-speaking student suffer because someone’s child can’t speak English”? In my opinion teaching a bilingual education can be done at a different time other than in class on a normal school day, it can be done on a tutoring basis where other students are not missing out on things they should be
It is indeed essential to learn grammar rules and develop basic writing skills, but not at the expense of integrating students’ cultural identity in the learning process and in-class discussions. The classroom is where the 2nd phase of early socialization begins. As early as kindergarten, diversity in the classroom is created by children and teachers sometimes fail to understand that no two children are the same. Cultural identity is barely promoted, as the mainstream English encompasses most aspects of education. In the article, “Preserving the Cultural Identity of English Language Learner”, Sumaryono and Ortiz argued that in the classroom, students can become disconnected and feel abandoned if the teacher doesn’t express any sort of sensitivity towards their cultural identities (16).
Since parents tend to have limited English language skills, the communication between school and parent is limited. (Huffcut 34). Hmong parents who do not speak English insist that their children communicate in their native language and keep up Hmong traditions (Vang, F. 4). First generation Hmong American college students do not perform as well as other students because of language barrier too. Students whose parents are illiterate in English or their primary language are more likely to be underachievers in school (Vang, C. 10).
However, not only do developmental centers push reading proficiency, but also focus on providing age-appropriate activities that encourage curiosity and use of the five senses (Classroom Goals-Child and Family Center). Children are taught life skills like reading, writing, and socialization. The Big Lift Program is targeted to improve reading skills but also using those skills to move onto kindergarten (The Big Lift Program). Wichita State University offers 14 different educational spaces that address life skills. Here The block play center allows children to use their problem solving skills and creative thinking, the writing center offers a space for improving English/ writing skills, and the cooking center allows kids to learn about measurements and task completion (Lauren.
Linguists and researchers as Purcell, Lee, Biffin, Baker distinguish other division of bilingualism and bilingual education. The basic division of bilingualism into compound, coordinate, balanced and dominant, has been already mentioned however there are some other criteria defining the division of bilingualism. Baker (2001) introduced several types of bilingual education programmes that are spread worldwide. Nowadays a lot of schools follow the curriculum based on the bilingual programmes invented by Baker. These programmes include the ways of learning foreign languages, the programmes reinforcing the target language or the programmes retaining the mother tongue at the first place and developing the target
One issue that is prevalent in the educational institution is the concept of the academic achievement gap bet between minority students and the majority. The issue is expanded upon the concept of how and why minority students are not achieving academically at the same rate of majority students. There are multiple reasons as to why this gap is so prevalent in today’s schools. Some of those reasons include language and cultural barriers, also the idea of how the minority culture views academic performance. These is also a disconnection between students and school that is impacting the way students learn and how much they ultimately learn within the classroom.
Tarigan (1990, p.3-4) defines that “speaking is a language skill that is developed in child life, which is preceded by listening skill, and at that period speaking skill is learned”. It means that speaking is the basic skill of language in addition to listening . According to Grognet A.G (1997, p.136), “ Speaking is one of the skills that have to be mastered by students