Marisol Jaslyn Pena Professor Caleb Camacho English 1302 February 15, 2017 Annotated bibliography Argument: The next future generation must be persuaded to stand up for what they believe in and not be too scared to make a change in the world. They need to leave their mark in the world. I Have a Dream by Martin Luther King Jr published on August 28, 1963 Martin Luther King Jr was the son of a Baptist minister. He received a doctorate degree in theology. He was a civil rights activist, his first major protest for the African Americans was the successful Montgomery bus boycott.
The blacks also stated that the constitution was disobeyed since constitutional rights towards them were broken. The 1960s were the highest point of African-American struggle towards equality and many historically important events that changed the course of history for these people took place. The 1950s gave the blacks hope for an improving and better future without being violent. Many groups such as SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference), SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) were formed by the African-Americans including young aged activists in order to peacefully change the situation and circumstances they had to deal with. Yearning for equality and trying to prove it right, African-Americans began to capture the attention of the media.
The Greensboro Sit-Ins You are one of the many people to enter your local Woolworth’s to join the protests. That was a very common situation in February of 1960. Sit-Ins became a highly influential factor in Civil Rights. They were created and popularized in Greensboro, North Carolina in 1960, during the Greensboro Sit-Ins. The Greensboro Sit-Ins were a series of protests led by four young black college students that were committed to equality in civil rights.
“Carter G. Woodson was the sole individual responsible for creating Negro History Week in Washington, D.C., in February 1926” (Edmondson). Years later, President Ford extended the week into an entire month. It began as an infrastructure to help eradicate the neglection of African American history; nonetheless, over the years, there has been much debate concerning the annual celebration. Although Black History Month has received backlash from both African Americans and Caucasians, it is still a necessity in today’s life because it provides historical information that the youth cannot find in textbooks and recognizes neglected people who have fulfilled great actions. Historically, African American history has been deemed as an unimportant subject.
955 was only the beginning of the civil rights movement. Schools had just be desegregated due to Brown V.S The Board of Education, the lynching’s of colored people had almost been unheard-of at that point in most states, and things were very slowly starting to get better for people of color. However, in places like the south these new social standard were very had to accept and white people would do nearly anything to keep schools segregated and keep the Jim Crow Law in place, a law that says “separate but equal.” Journalist William Bradford Hue, magazine article, The Shocking Story of Approved Killing in Mississippi confirms Roy Bryant brutally killed 14-year-old Emmitt Till, because he whistled towards his wife. William Bradford exposed the
The legendary Virginia State University Historically black colleges and universities are founded almost everywhere in the United States. During the time of the Civil War, in the South of the United States, there were no higher education systems for African American students. “Particularly, with the 13th amendment abolition of slavery and reconstruction in the South, things began to change.” (“The History of Historically”) “In 1862, Senator Justin Morrill spearheaded a movement to improve the state of higher education throughout the United States, putting emphasis on the need for institutions to train Americans in the applied sciences, agriculture and engineering”. (“The History of Historically”) The Morrill Land – Grant Act gave insight on
Although these events happened segregation still continued. In 1957 nine African American children were enrolled to Central High School but the white people tried to not let them in. The Governor of Arkansas was also involved in not letting these kids into the school. This event led to President Dwight Eisenhower to send in troops to make sure that the nine students stayed there for the rest of the school year. In the year 1950 the census were for the first time blacks/ Negros were counted into the census.
One of the decisions that Governor Faubus has decided to make was haunting integration. Today nine negro students tried to enter Little Rock Central High and were denied access. My sources tell me that Governor Faubus had called in the National Guard and ordered them not to let the students in the school. This decision he has made brakes not only the law but also upsets the president, Dwight D. Eisenhower. Many Arkansans agree with Faubus.
That is, to detail the sacrifice made over the decades in so that people could have equal access to education. Obama qualifies this point by describing numerous historical events, including the founding of Bowie State University in 1865, shortly after President Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation (288). She highlights the uniqueness of the University as it was founded for black students because “…in many parts of the parts of this country, it was illegal for black people to get an education.” (288). She accounts that slaves “could be beaten within an inch of their lives” if the sought to acquire a remotely decent education. Obama continues her historical account as she describes the travail and bravery that a few people possessed that led them to afford educational opportunities for black people even when “Teachers received death threats.” (289).
The Civil Rights Movement in America lasted during the 1950s and 1960s. It was a time in which oppressed African Americans demanded change in society, both socially and legally. Some sacrificed most of what they had in order to make their point clear; they were jailed, assaulted, and even killed by the government that was supposed to protect them. Nonetheless, their protests proved to be powerful because some laws and Supreme Court decisions were in their favor. This includes the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas case ruling, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965; all of which helped put an end to segregation in the country.
The Mississippi’s black codes laws initially did replicate slavery, which of course is oppose to the Civil Rights. Documentation states, that African American were forbidden to use insulting gestures, nor could they own a gun nor preach the Gospel without first receiving a license. Children of color were then forced as “apprentices” until the age of eighteen. Furthermore, the “Address of the Colored Convention to the People of Alabama” shows the suffering and sacrifices, tramped upon the rights, and lack of trust in the Union for the African American’s future. They are anything but convinced that the right granted would be carried out.
Civil disobedience does lead to progress, just like Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King Jr. disobeyed the laws which gave African Americans more rights. Rosa Parks is an American Civil Rights Activist. On Dec. 1, 1955, Parks disobeyed the bus driver when he told her to give up her seat in the colored section to a white person just because the white section was filled. She got arrested because she violated Alabama 's segregation laws. Although others African-Americans had already been arrested for the same thing, Park 's case went all the way to state, so she was the best candidate to challenge the court.
White people were getting worried that African-Americans would overthrow the government because of their rapid growth in population. Soon after, the Alabama government dictated that only the votes of white people would count. After that happened many African-Americans rioted against the government and white owned businesses. When that happened a man named Professor Gomillion filed suit against the mayor and other high officials saying it was against the 14th Amendment. When the suit reached Judge Frank Johnson he dismissed the case saying the state had the rights to draw a boundary of what he could accept, but after he dismissed the case it had reached the Court of Appeals and the ruling was upheld.