Laibson and Gabaix (2008) found out that many successful economic models have several of the seven properties they define. The seven properties are: 1. Parsimony A parsimonious model is a simple model which rely on several specific assumptions which provides little degree of freedom to the researchers. The purpose of this characteristics is to prevent the researchers to manipulate the model so that it would work well in the situation. If such manipulation occurs, there will be over-fitting model which cannot work in out-of-sample condition.
“This non-reductive form of functionalism is called role functionalism” (Moore 2011). However, this is where it runs into criticisms as the realizer of the functional role is also a sufficient cause, from this conclusion one could derive that role functionalism doesn’t make a contribution of its own. However, according to Moore (2011) in his essay on ‘Role Functionalism and Epiphenomenalism’, he tries to show that there is a way role functionalism, (the unreduced roles) can make contributions of their own. He does this by splitting his paper into four sections. Firstly; he outlines the standard model of higher order role functionalism, In the second section, he considers the epiphenomenal argument against the model in the first section, (ephiphenomenal- whereby mental states are caused in the brain but have no effects on physical events).
The other extreme, a forward-chained expert system, has to be modeled by an expert and cannot update its knowledge automatically. The system contains no more than the knowledge of its designer, and if taking the difficulties of storing the knowledge properly into account, not even that. Somewhere in between these techniques is the Bayesian network technique. This technique can be modeled as an expert system, but also has the ability of updating its beliefs. To make the system easy to use, the nodes in the net are often discrete.
Limitations of the theory This theory do makes no forecast on how dissonance can be reduced. It listed a several options for lower the risk of cognitive dissonance (add constant cognitions, shift dissonance cognitions, adjusting the importance of cognitions), but of course the persuader hope dissonance to be deal in a way to further the goal. We should qualify the facts on the experimental support for this theory. Normally, a theory will make a forecast can be abstract to be stronger test than the vague theories. This theory does suggest that:- 1) Dissonance is psychologically hard to motivate people who wish to achieve consonance.
The challenge is to strike a balance between adaptability to changing technology, productivity and stakeholder satisfaction. Conventional managerial practices could not be relied upon heavily because they have been developed on presumptions which have undergone change. Theory A proposes an alternate set of assumptions on human behaviour and work performance which would impact the organizational performance. (1) Sustainability : Change is universal and irreversible. While confronted by change, the organizations have becomes susceptible to forces around it.
Related Work and Theoretical Background Attribution Theory and Attributional Dimensions Attributions are subjective causal explanations for successful and unsuccessful outcomes that are known to influence individuals’ behavior, motivation, and emotions . In attribution research, a distinction is made between internal and external causes (locus) perceived by the individual. For example, a person may either feel responsible for a positive or negative outcome (internal) or relate it to external circumstances . Three further dimensions are distinguished: Stability, controllability, and globality . Causes are considered as stable over time and therefore hard to change or as unstable and easy to change.
In this situation, predictability is very low and opportunities are unknown, resulting in instability of the system. The system’s resilience features should be evaluated in a wider perspective that always takes into account the importance of internal dynamics of the system in relation to the external influences around it (Abid, 2016; Garcia, 2013). A system can continue to operate in a familiar environment and if resilience capacity increases, it suddenly moves into a different environment. Therefore, the resilience
The large organization provides good benefit, is stable and has rules, well defined jobs and a clear management hierarchy of authority. The self-assignment will help shape a better planning of goals in the future in terms of the structural frame, human, political and symbolic structure by knowing where to concentrate all effort and not go astray with the goals. Organizational
Although widely adopted by NGOs, the sustainable livelihoods framework has received criticisms (Ncube-Phiri et al., 2014). These include its, little attention at times too complex social-ecological consequences of adaptive livelihood (Musarurwa and Lunga 2012). 3.3 Actor Network Theory and Hazard mitigation The literature reviewed points that few studies have adequately addressed the complex roles of both nature and society in promoting a better understanding of the concept hazard mitigation (Wessing 1988). ANT highlights how human and non-human agencies (actors) stimulate the process, guide and edge action of human users (Ernstson 2008). 1.3.1 Power According to ANT, an actor does not continue to exist merely as an entity, but rather as a coalition of heterogeneous essentials that arrange into a network (Latour 2005).
For that reason, a leader cannot be effective in every situation. This is to mean that they will be effective in certain situations, but not in others. The models in the situational theory are Schmidt’s and Tannenbaum leadership continuums, which range from autocratic to persuasive to consultative to democratic (Taylor, 2009). Autocratic leadership is used in emergency situations, persuasive leadership is used when the leader wants to plan and implement something and requires the team to participate, consultative and democratic are used when there is time and resources to collaboratively develop and implement a policy. The assertion in situational theory is that, one, all the three factors (situation, leader and followers) are equally significant, and two, different situations require the use of different leadership