The reduction in the ventilation-perfusion ratio results in alveolar hypoventilation, causing the reduction in PaO2. Decrease in PaO2 can also be explained with an anatomic shunt1. DIAGNOSIS PFTs in pneumothorax patients will result in decreases in VT, IRV, ERV, RV, VC, IC, FRC, and TLC1. ABGs for a mild to moderate pneumothorax have an increased pH and a decreased PaCo2, HCO3-, PaO2, and SpO2. For a severe pneumothorax, ABGs have a decreased pH, PaO2, and SpO2 and an increased PaCo2 and HCO3-.1 Chest radiologic findings include translucent lung fields on the pneumothorax side, a mediastinal shift to the unaffected side, a depressed diaphragm, lung collapse, and atelectasis4.
Case Study 1 Hepatic Failure Dalia O. Smith Allan Hancock College Abstract Cirrhosis of the liver is a chronic degenerative disease characterized by liver fibrosis and decreased hepatic function. Fibrotic tissue, seen in cirrhosis patients, impairs the function of the liver which eventually leads to liver failure. Although cirrhosis is often associated with prolonged alcohol use, exposure to toxic substances can also cause cirrhosis of the liver. Amongst those toxic substances is acetaminophen, and levofloxacin, both commonly used drugs. The level of damage these substances can potentially cause is directly correlated to the level of exposure to such substances.
Hypopituitarism is a medical problem that goes back to the pituitary gland. It is a situation where the pituitary gland doesn 't produce enough of one or more hormones. So depending upon which hormone are hormones are deficient, your body responses will act abnormally according to what they are.This condition is not that common. When it is diagnosed, you 'll need lifetime treatments. When a person has hypopituitarism, it often goes into progressive stages over time.
It may also be said that it is neurodegeneration with prodilection for the cortico motor neurons in the motor cortex and the bulbar and spinal motor neurons. Mainly the motor neurons are selectively targeted for degeneration in this disease. In 1993, missense mutations in the gene which encodes the antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were discovered in subsets of patients diagnosed with familial ALS .Its pathogenesis is complex and multifactorial and disease commonly characterized by stiff muscles, muscle twitching, and gradually worsening
If they have a sudden onset as it happens in acute myocardial infarction massive, rapid tachyarrhythmia or rupture occurs a valve endocarditis associated with a marked reduction in cardiac output. These phenomena are associated with symptoms caused by inadequate perfusion of the organs and bed acute venous congestion ventricle affected accordingly. If anatomic abnormalities are gradually devel or if the patient survives an acute attack become operational some compensatory mechanisms especially cardiac remodeling and neurohormonal activation which enables that body to tolerate anatomical anomaly and reduced cardiac
Bleeding in the brain is very serious and dangerous because it can deprive the brain of blood, causing parts of the brain to die. Intracranial hemorrhage is usually seen in babies born prematurely, although it sometimes occurs in unborn babies after they have had a stroke. Some factors that can increase the chance of an unborn baby to have a stroke are: pre-existing weaknesses or abnormalities in the baby 's blood vessels or the mother’s placenta, high blood pressure in the
There may also be numbness in the legs and feet. To treat arteriosclerosis there are medications, surgeries, and lifestyle modifications that can help an individual with the disease. The walls of the arteries receiving too much pressure repeatedly can cause high blood pressure, also known as hypertension. Symptoms may include headaches, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, blurred visions, nosebleeds, palpitations, and dyspnea. Most people will not
Binge drinking can cause arrhythmias. It can also cause heart failure, increased chance of getting diabetes and stroke, hypertensive, and high triglycerides. Erectile dysfunction is a common side effect to alcohol abuse in men. It can also reduce hormone production, influence testicular function, and cause infertility. Excessive drinking can cause a woman to discontinue menstruating and become infertile.
For example failure to maintain body temperature leads to hypothermia or heatstroke. Failure to maintain energy balance can result in obesity and diabetes. In each of these cases, extremes are potentially dangerous. The endocrine system consist of many glands. These glands secrete chemicals known as hormones.